R&D SYMPOSIUM 4
31 January 2017 | Congress Centrum Mainz | Mainz, Germany
Part of the 7th Advanced Automotive Battery Conference Europe
The principal aim of materials, cell, and battery engineering is to create a battery product that makes the best use of the chemistry’s capability while providing the vehicle with a cost-effective, reliable energy-storage system. In this symposium, we will cover materials and cell engineering, mechanical, electrical, and thermal design and integration of packs, as well as output, safety, and durability of the key designs. Papers will highlight new developments in achieving a cost-effective design balance between performance, reliability, durability, and safety. Life modeling and lab and field validation as well as safety enhancement technology and abuse tolerance validation will be explored since ensuring safety and durability will have the greatest impact on market acceptance. Attendees will get an overview of the challenges and current progress of all aspects of battery engineering from materials to cell and packs, to results from laboratory and field tests for durability and safety.
Tuesday, 31 January
7:30 Symposium Registration and Morning Coffee
8:30 Chairperson’s Opening Remarks
Arno Kwade, Ph.D., Professor, Chemical Engineering, Materials Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Braunschweig
8:35 Determination of Process-Structure-Performance Correlations and Development of Alternative Production Processes by the German Cell-Production Research Cluster “ProZell”
Arno Kwade, Ph.D., and Henrike Bockholt, Ph.D., Materials Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Automotive Systems Engineering, Technische Universität Braunschweig
The quality and properties of Li-Ion battery cells, especially of the electrodes, depend on the process configuration and operating parameter values beside on the active and passive materials. For a high-quality production without failure, a deep knowledge of the influence of the numerous operating parameters on cell performance and the intermediate product properties is very important. These correlations and new production processes are developed and investigated within the German cell production research cluster ProZell.
8:55 Challenges of High-Quality and High-Performance Cell Stacking
Jürgen Fleischer, Ph.D., Manager of Machines, Equipment and Process Automation, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Cell manufacturing is one of the main cost drivers of the current production process of lithium-ion cells. One reason are the complex and time-consuming stacking processes. In addition, the stacking technology influences the performance of the cell. For example, wounded cells and single sheet stacked cells have different performance characteristics. Thus, there is a conflict between quality and performance of the assembly processes. Therefore, the challenges and the development of advanced cell stacking technologies will be discussed.
9:15 Environmentally-Friendly Manufacturing of Li-Ion High-Capacity/High-Voltage Electrodes via Aqueous Processing
Idoia Urdampilleta, Head of Materials for Energy Unit, IK4-CIDETEC Research Center
Lithium ion battery (LIB) technology has reached
a very high degree of development and market share. However, several important
manufacturing bottlenecks still impede further spreading of LIBs into the EV
and stationary energy-storage market. Among them, their relatively high price
and negative environmental impact are addressed by IK4-CIDETEC at the electrode
manufacturing stage, by the replacement of toxic and expensive NMP organic
solvent by water in the coating slurries. This approach has been developed
(within several EU collaborative projects and industrial contracts) not only
for high capacity anodes (mainly based on silicon and graphite) but especially
for the more challenging cathodes: from current industry standards LFP and NMC,
towards high voltage materials such as Li-rich NMC, Co/Mn phosphates (LFMP) and
LNMO (5V spinels). Upscaled manufacturing of electrodes in pilot coating line
and validation in pouch cell prototypes will be shown, demonstrating the
feasibility of industrial electrode manufacturing without sacrificing electrochemical
performance or durability.
9:35 Experiences in Prototyping Li-Ion Cells for Automotive Applications
Andreas Huth, Ph.D., Manager Prototyping, Volkswagen Varta Microbatteries Forschungsgesellschaft mbH & Co KG
The presentation will focus on learnings from prototyping automotive cells based on Li-ion technology. The complete manufacturing process will be discussed briefly. Spotlights will be put on mixing, coating, roll pressing, laser welding and winding as well as single cell assembly in hard-case applications.
10:10 Grand Opening Coffee Break with Exhibit & Poster Viewing
11:00 Chairperson’s Remarks
Masato Origuchi, Chief Battery Engineer for EV/HEV, Renault
11:05 ZOE Battery Durability, Field Experience and Future Vision
Bruno Delobel, Ph.D., Electrochemistry Junior Expert, Renault
The ZOE vehicle was launched in 2012 and delivered to more than 50k customers since then. In order to better design the future batteries and to anticipate the usage of the battery, a deep analysis of the current customers’ usage is a key point. This presentation will exhibit the first feedback from the field on: 1. the durability and its correlation with the predictive model, and 2. the field experience usage. To conclude this presentation, we will emphasize Renault’s future vision for battery applications.
11:25 Methods for Aging Simulation and Reliability Prediction in Automotive Cells and xEV Battery Systems
Joerg Keller, Ph.D., Manager, RD/EKI, Daimler AG
Daimler´s green strategy is based on fuel cell technology and xEVs (Hybrid, Plug-in and electric vehicles). Product reliability in automotive cells and xEV battery systems has ultimately to be proven under real life stress in the field. For a quality oriented company like Daimler it is mandatory to avoid failures of the vehicles. This requires a root cause analysis of the underlying failure mechanisms, and a framework of statistical methods has been developed and is presented.
11:45 Volume Change from Materials to Cell Level and Its Influence on Battery Lifetime
Andreas Jossen, Ph.D., Professor, Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Technical University Munich
Charge and discharge processes cause volume change in the anode and cathode active materials. An investigation starting from the lattice level up to the full cell level is presented. The measured characteristic is described in a micromechanical model to get the 2D/2D displacement of porous electrodes. On cell level cylindrical and pouch cells were investigated to analyze the displacement distribution over lifetime. The displacement shows a reversible and an irreversible part with an inhomogeneous distribution, influenced by the tap position and other parameters. Finally, design rules are discussed to minimize the effect on displacement on lifetime.
12:05 Detecting, Diagnosing, and Controlling Degradation in Lithium-Ion Battery Packs
Gregory Offer, Ph.D. Senior Lecturer, Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London
The latest work of the electrochemical science & engineering group at Imperial College London on understanding how thermal management affects performance and degradation, and how thermal techniques can be used to detect and diagnose path dependent degradation will be presented. A comparison of surface cooling vs. tab cooling shows that surface cooling limits useable capacity considerably and causes accelerated degradation. A novel diagnostic method based on simple cell surface temperature measurements developed by our group will also be presented. The technique is capable of quantitatively determining the state-of-health of individual cells simultaneously, even when in parallel with unknown and changing current, during both charge and discharge and whilst cells are being thermally managed.
12:25 The Influence of Aging of LIB on Cell Safety: A Comprehensive Approach Combining Electrochemical Characterization, Accelerating Rate Calorimetry and Post-Mortem Analysis
Falco Schappacher, Ph.D., Head of Safety and Life Division, MEET, Muenster University
Safety properties of LIBs are a major aspect for future applications, as high energy densities may lead to fatal consequences (e.g. fire or explosion) in case of an internal defect or abusive conditions. In this regard, the influence of the state of health (SOH) and the aging conditions on the cells safety is of special interest to guarantee safe operation. Therefore, this study correlates electrochemical performance and aging mechanisms as well as the thermal stability of the cells and their components and the response to thermal safety tests of state-of-the-art 18650 cells.
13:00 Networking Lunch
14:15 Dessert Refreshment Break with Exhibit & Poster Viewing
15:00 Chairperson’s Remarks
Arnold Lamm, Ph.D., EU-Projects and Energy Systems Analyses, Daimler AG
15:05 Requirements and Approaches for LIB regarding Vehicle Safety
Rainer Justen, Manager Vehicle Safety S-Class, MSA, AMG, E-Mobility, Mercedes-Benz Cars Development, Daimler AG
Electric vehicles are on the way to changing the future automotive market. Many countries have ambitious market penetration targets and, no later than 2020, electric vehicles will take significant market shares. In order to prevent consequences in vehicle safety, the new safety challenges must be addressed accordingly. This is particularly true for the crash safety of modern Li-Ion batteries. The legal requirements are still under discussion in working groups and among experts in many countries. In this presentation, the current status of safety challenges and the safety performance of battery electric vehicles will be discussed, along with adequate concepts of solutions.
15:25 Assessment of Battery Testing Methods from a Policy-Making Perspective
Andreas Pfrang, Ph.D., Scientific Officer, Joint Research Centre, Directorate for Energy, Transport & Climate, European Commission
Multiple battery testing methods are described in scientific literature and standards to assess certain battery properties. At the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre in Petten, battery testing is performed for assessing safety of battery technologies and for evaluating the suitability of testing methods for policy purposes. An overview of the experimental facilities and examples of policy-supporting investigations will be given.
15:45 Safety Testing for xEV Batteries – Comparison of Test Standards and Validation Procedures
Michael Geppert, Head of Laboratory, TÜV SÜD Battery Testing GmbH
Today a large variety of test standards and specifications are available in the field of safety validation of xEV batteries. Additionally, new methods and tests develop from growing experience with this technology. This presentation will compare various test standards and validation processes, focusing on 1. comparing test standards and homologation processes in Europe / North America / China, 2. the lessons learned and future developments, 3. current examples of safety validation tests, and 4. ECE R 136.
16:05 Battery Safety Testing - The Status of Testing for Propagation of Single Thermal Runaway Cell Failures
Daniel Doughty, Ph.D., President, Battery Safety Consulting, Inc.
Evaluation of battery safety in electric and hybrid-electric vehicles is an important topic that is being addressed by both regulatory authorities and trade organizations. One of the most important, but least used, safety test is the Failure Propagation Test. This test requires the trigger of a single cell thermal runaway event in a module or battery pack, to determine if the thermal runaway event propagates to adjacent cells. The method of triggering the thermal runaway event will be discussed, as well as other details necessary to perform this test procedure. The status of development of battery safety test standards that included a failure propagation test will be reviewed.
16:25 Beyond Teardown - AVL Series Battery Benchmarking
Wenzel Prochazka, Ph.D., Product Manager, Global Battery Management Team, AVL List GmbH
What are battery safety measures in the design of competitor’s batteries? What about thermal protection? How about crash integration concepts? These questions are currently asked more intensely in the field of strongly electrified vehicles, like plug-in hybrids and pure electric vehicles, than in other fields. The growing customer acceptance for these alternative drivetrain concepts and its connected move to higher volume production, puts OEM development departments in front of new challenges and strong need for state-of-the-art technology knowledge and engineering methodology understanding. The collection and especially the comparison of technical information of batteries in electrified vehicles on the market – as well as an in-depth analysis of engineering requirements and even the targets behind those products – is a time consuming operation, as it requires a structured and methodic approach to derive the right information and compare across different cell technologies and integration concepts. AVL is trying to solve this problem by a battery benchmarking program going beyond teardown. The process starts at the vehicle level with the operation strategies and integration, continues with a classical tear down and goes well beyond it in the following engineering analysis to find out what were the criteria to design the component in the first place. The target is to provide information about engineering concepts and make this information comparable. During the benchmarking process, more than 240 criteria are measured, assessed and the benchmark attributes are calculated based on an AVL methodology, which we would like to give some insight to and present some actual work and results. Special focus is laid on extracting development targets so as to also support current and future battery development methodically.
17:05 Networking Reception with Exhibit & Poster Viewing
18:05 Close of Day