Advanced Automotive Battery Technology, Application and Market
Wednesday, February 6 to Friday February 8, 2013
AABC 2013 AABTAM Symposium - Advanced Automotive Battery Technology, Application and Market - session 2
Energy Storage for Hybrid Vehicles
Lithium-Ion batteries are now offered in about a dozen small to moderate volume hybrid programs. Yet the higher-volume producers are still offering their vehicles with NiMH batteries. How fast will Lithium-Ion gain market share and which cell and pack designs will provide the best cost-performance trade-off and still guarantee reliability and safety? Will any other energy-storage technologies capture market share at the low-cost end of the hybridization spectrum? These crucial issues will be addressed in this session by major automakers as well as Li-Ion developers.
Heinz-Willi Vassen, Manager Energy and Storage Systems
, Audi AG
Mr. Vassen has been manager of energy and storage systems at Audi since 2006. He joined Audi AG in 1999 as diagnostics engineer and became manager of gateway ECU and data buses in 2004. Mr. Vassen studied electrical engineering at the RWTH Aachen, Germany and was a system engineer of engine control at Mannesmann VDO AG between 1997 and 1999.
48V Architecture and Energy-Storage Requirements and Solutions
Josef Berger, Development Engineer for High-Voltage Batteries,
In the near future, vehicles will have a high amount of new electric technologies to improve customers driving experience and comfort. Auxiliary heaters, electric rear axles and electric turbo chargers will be integrated in the vehicles to name only a few. In combination with the aim to reduce CO2
emissions and technologies as StartStop on the move to reach this goal, future vehicles will see an ongoing increase in electrification and therefore an increasing demand of power, energy and to the 12V battery. A possible solution to fulfill the growing requirements on the power supply in vehicles is the use of a 48V power supply.
The presentation will cover three topics regarding the 48V power supply focusing on the energy storage:
- 48V Architecture:
- 48V architectures in general
- 12V/48V and 48V/12V topologies
- Energy-Storage Requirements:
- Li-Ion Battery
- Lead-Acid Battery
Bridging The Gap Between Start-Stop and Vehicle Electrification
Craig Rigby, Vice President Global Product Engineering, Johnson Controls, Inc.
This presentation looks at the spectrum of vehicle powertrains and trend of increasing electrification strategies of Original Equipment Manufacturers. This trend is in large part due to the regulatory requirements across the globe. We will review these requirements and correlate them to research on what customers want, need and expect when purchasing a vehicle.
Start-Stop technology has reached mass production in Europe and is extending to North America. This technology will be adopted and well accepted long before HEV or EV vehicle technology. So what technology will best close the gap between Start-Stop and HEV?
This presentation will introduce the 48V Micro Hybrid technology solution and dive into the following areas for discussion:
- What is 48V Micro Hybrid Battery technology?
- How does it change the powertrain architecture and electrification strategies?
- How will it be implemented?
- Critical areas for battery performance?
The presentation concludes with a summary of the ultimate goal of 48V Micro Hybrid Battery technology and why this incremental step towards increased electrification is critical in advancing the industry.
Lithium Ion for Micro- and Mild Hybrids
Jeff Kessen, Director, Global Marketing,
As vehicle manufacturers continue to seek the most cost effective methods of improving fuel economy, various lighter forms of electrification are gaining market momentum. In particular, micro-hybrid or start/stop systems are candidates to become standard equipment in the years ahead due to their modest system cost for the fuel economy gains they offer.
While micro-hybrids generally operate at the traditional 12-volt level, they have certain power constraints as a result. To address these power limitations and achieve greater levels of system performance, vehicle architectures at 48V and higher are also under consideration. This presentation will examine the economics of fuel economy gains in both micro- and mild hybrids and review the corresponding energy storage systems with a focus on lithium-ion alternatives.
- Economics of fuel economy
- Value of incremental fuel economy in passenger vehicles
- Cost and performance required to achieve incremental fuel economy
- Energy storage technologies for micro-hybrids
- Lithium-ion benefits in 12V micro-hybrids
- Cycle life in start/stop duty cycles
- Dynamic charge acceptance & its impact on fuel economy
- When 12V is not enough
- Market forces driving higher power requirements
- Lithium-ion energy storage solutions for 48V systems
- Cost / value trade-offs between micro- and mild hybrids
- Conclusion and outlook
12 V Lithium-Ion Battery for Start and Stop Applications
Jyunya Ueda, Development Division, Lithium-ion Battery Business Unit,
GS Yuasa International, Ltd.
GS Yuasa and its manufacturing subsidiary, Lithium Energy Japan (LEJ), have developed new 12 V Lithium-ion Battery for the Start and Stop application of automotive vehicles. It has the superior characteristics such as lighter weight, longer life and better charge acceptance than practical lead acid battery. We believe that it can contribute to an improvement of fuel efficiency of the automotive vehicle.
- The size of battery is VDA LN5, and the weight is approx. 13 kg.
- The capacity is 70 Ah at the beginning of life.
- CCA(EN) is 770 A, which is higher than that of lead acid batteries with the similar capacity.
- The battery consists of four Lithium-ion cells connected in series, Battery Management Unit (BMU), disconnect switch, resin battery housing and bus bars.
- The positive active material of Lithium-ion cells is Lithium Iron Phosphate that excels in safety.
- The BMU has a lot of functions to keep the battery health and safety.
- Monitor and calculate battery states such as voltage, current, temperature, SOC, SOH.
- Disconnect switch cuts off the circuit internally when some abnormal conditions such as high voltage, low voltage, short circuit current and high temperature are detected.
- Cell balancing
- Communicate with vehicle via LIN to control charging or protect the battery.
12V Energy Recovery System with Nickel Metal Hydride Battery
Ryuji Kawase, General Manager, Alkaline Battery Engineering Group, Automotive Battery Business Unit,
SANYO Electric Co.,Ltd.
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with a battery system have been expanding the eco-friendly car market thanks to their good economy and performance. More simplified Idling Start and Stop (ISS) system compared to HEV system can also improve the fuel efficiency with more affordable cost, and is contributing to the expansion of such eco-friendly car market.
ISS systems are commonly using a lead-acid storage battery from a viewpoint of cost, though there are issues related to shortened life of the lead-acid battery and room for improvement in fuel efficiency.
In order to solve these issues, we have developed 12 V energy recovery system using nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries that is combined in parallel with the main lead-acid battery to enhance the function of ISS. The energy recovery system increases the recovery energy which can be supplied to the electrical component by utilizing the better regain power characteristics of Ni-MH batteries. The Ni-MH battery system also allows an extended life of the lead-acid battery by taking in part the role of the main battery.
We have succeeded in developing a new Ni-MH battery with improved high-temperature durability and regain power characteristics for the energy recovery system. In particular, the high-temperature durability enables the batteries to be mounted in the engine compartment of a vehicle, improving the space utilization and reducing the total cost. We aim to contribute to a better global environment by expanding the eco-friendly car market by spreading this energy recovery system.
Battery Development for Hybrid Vehicles
Kazuo Tojima, Senior Staff Engineer, Battery Material Engineering Division, and Yutaka Oyama, Assistant Manager, Battery Material Engineering Division, Toyota Motor Corporation
Toyota Motor Co. released the first hybrid vehicle for the company, Prius in 1997. Since then, we have been putting our efforts to an advancement of automotive batteries including drivability and environmental performance enhancements for our HVs. In 2011, we launched a production Prius incorporating Li-ion battery after thorough safety and reliability evaluations using demonstration fleets. This presentation will discuss the development status of Li ion battery for Toyota’s HV, including our concepts of safety and reliability design and the evaluation results.
- Development of TMC’s Hybrid Vehicle
- Introduction of the Prius with Lithium-ion battery
- Toyota’s safety and reliability concepts for traction batteries
- Power and reliability design concept for Li-ion battery and the evaluation results
Life Time Simulation of HEV Batteries
Dr. Sebastian Scharner, R&D Battery – Cell Technologies & Development, BMW
Life time simulation of batteries is a very important topic in the development of electrical drive trains, where the customer requirements have to be fulfilled independent of how the user profile looks over a long period of time or even vehicle life.
Theoretically a wide range of driving profiles and climatic zones have to be investigated in order to fully predict the ageing behaviour of batteries under all conditions. As this is practically impossible, a method is required to minimize the number of measurements whilst covering the most frequently occurring usage conditions.
The design of experiments (DoE) is a method normally used for statistical planning of experiments to optimize the quality of products and processes. This method was employed to investigate the ageing effects of temperature, current rating, state-of-charge (SOC) and depth-of-discharge (DoD) on the performance of HEV lithium-ion cells under laboratory conditions and thus simulating real battery ageing conditions.
For the DoE, a total number of 60 cells were operated in a variety of static and dynamic ageing environments ranging from:
- 25 °C to 50 °C
- 0 A to 150 A
- 30 % to 80 % SOC
- 0 % to 40 % DoD
Three cells were measured in each experiment to verify the reproducibility of the data. The capacity and internal resistance of each cell were monitored regularly over the course of 34 weeks via a standardized characterization test.
The presentation outlines details of experimental planning and demonstrates a procedure to extract the ageing information from a measured data set, as well as summarizing and expressing them in a generalized and simplified manner.