LLIBTA Symposium - Large Lithium Ion Battery Technology and Application
Track A: Cell Materials and Chemistry
Tuesday, February 5 to Wednesday, February 6, 2013
AABC 2013 LLIBTA Symposium - Large Lithium Ion Battery Technology and Application - Track A: Cell Materials and Chemistry - session A2
Advances in Inactive Materials and Electrode Technology
Electrode technology has a significant impact on cell cost, performance, life, and reliability. In this session, we will review inactive components that contribute to electrode integrity and performance, and recent advances in the coating technology that is utilized to manufacture electrodes.
Nobuaki Yoshioka, Executive Vice President, NEC Energy Devices, Ltd.
Mr. Yoshioka joined NEC Corporation in 1981 and started developing lithium-ion batteries at NEC central research laboratory in 1999. He then joined NEC Lamilion Energy, Ltd. in 2002 and worked on the development of lithium-ion batteries for automotive applications. In 2007 Mr. Yoshioka joined Automotive Energy Supply Corporation, the cell, battery module and pack supplier for Nissan and Renault EV, as executive vice president. In 2011, Mr. Yoshioka returned to NEC to head business development activities at NEC Energy Devices, Ltd., a producer of electrodes for Li ion cells.
Electrode Technology of Lithium-Ion Battery for Automotive Application
Kazuya Mimura, Manager, Production Engineering Department, Production Division, NEC Energy Devices, Ltd.
The electrode is one of the most important elements of Li ion battery.
Battery cell performances greatly depend on the characteristics of the electrode. Such characteristics are determined by the manufacturing process, as well as by the materials used.
In addition, battery performances are influenced by the quality of electrodes. Uniformity of electrodes, manufactured on a mass production scale, is very important. It is especially the case for automotive application, where battery packs are constituted by large number of cells.
Generally, the manufacturing process for electrodes is divided into three steps: the mixing, the coating and finally the compression.
The dispersion state of slurry in the mixing process or the dry condition in the coating process is linked to the distribution of the binder and the electric conductive material in the electrode.
Finally electrodes’ characteristics affect the performances of battery cell, such as its power and lifetime.
More precisely regarding battery cell’s lifetime, it is related to the electrode density obtained during the compression process.
The presentation will focus on the relationship between the electrode manufacturing process, electrodes’ characteristics and battery cells’ performances.
Application of Aqueous Cathode Binder for Lithium-Ion Battery
Dr. Osamu Kose, Applications Engineer, Performance Polymer Research Laboratories, JSR Corporation
The application of water-based binders for both anode and cathode is under intensive study due to the global awareness of the environmental impact caused by the use of organic solvents.
In line with this background, JSR Corporation has been intensively developing water-based binders and characterizing their application over a wide variety of active materials. While water-based anode binders are now commonly used in manufacturing; few manufacturing plants have implemented water-based cathode binders due to the associated technical difficulties. This presentation outlines:
- Design concept of JSR’s water-based cathode binder
- Investigation of cathode preparation in water-based systems
- Application of JSR’s water-based cathode binder with several active materials
- Preliminary electrochemical performance results
Development of Conductive Binders for Silicon Anodes
Dr. Gao Liu, Staff Scientist, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Materials with high lithium storage capacity, such as silicon and tin based alloys, have recently been extensively studied for their potential applications as lithium-ion battery anodes. But the large-volume change associated with lithiation and delithiation severely hinders the practical employments. We report an effective solution to the volume-change by using conductive polymer binders. A class of new conductive polymers was developed through a combination of material synthesis, x-ray spectroscopy, density functional theory, and battery cell testing. Contrasting other polymer binders, the tailored electronic structure of the new polymer enables lithium doping under the operation condition of Si anode. The polymer thus maintains both electric conductivity and mechanical integrity during the battery operation. More importantly, this conductive polymer matrix is compatible with the lithium-ion slurry manufacturing process. This work implements the conceptual idea of combining binder and conductive additive into one material, solving the volume change problem of high capacity battery electrodes.
Advanced Materials Processing and Novel Characterization Methods for Low-Cost, High Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries
Dr. David Wood III, Staff Scientist & Fuel Cell Program Manager, Oak Ridge National Research Laboratory
The introduction of large-scale lithium secondary battery technology for energy storage and harvesting requires significant new investment in production facilities in changing from old to new chemistries and for reducing production cost and energy intensity. In addition, there will be required changes in process methodologies and quality control in shifting emphasis from small scale consumer electronics to large-scale automotive and grid storage applications. The DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) and Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) are assisting in meeting these challenges by funding ORNL to develop advanced processing methodology, low-cost electrode processing, non-destructive evaluation, and material diagnostics. The major objective of our research group is to investigate, improve, and scale electrode processing methodology to manufacture high performance lithium secondary batteries in industrial quantities with key industrial partners. Achieving this objective will result in faster widespread commercialization of lithium secondary battery technology and establishment of a secure domestic supply chain.
Manufacturers currently lack a full understanding of effects of material processing parameters and electrode formulation (i.e. colloidal chemistry and dispersion techniques) on battery performance. ORNL is conducting internal research on electrode coating technology that both reduces material processing cost and improves cell performance. Using ORNL’s expertise in process technology and quality control, the Lab is assisting industry in developing low-cost, water-based methods of producing electrodes and in enabling successful implementation of large scale battery cells meeting performance needs and cost targets. Major results from several additional partnerships will be discussed including anode graphite raw material processing with A123 Systems, critical supply chain validation with Dow Kokam, solid-state cathode processing with Planar Energy Devices, and polymer-ceramic composite separator characterization with Porous Power Technologies. ORNL is also characterizing materials and components with its world-class facilities that will complement the manufacturing science, as well as developing important diagnostic methods such as in-situ XRD, TEM, and SQUID magnetic susceptibility to elucidate high-voltage/energy cathode performance.
An overview of Chemical, Thermal, and Mechanical Stability of Separator Materials
Lie Shi, Vice President, Research and Development, Celgard LLC
Although an inactive material in a Lithium battery system, a separator membrane plays a critical role in both performance and safety. The presentation will review the key functions of separator materials and discuss the importance of their chemical, thermal, and mechanical stabilities.
- The significance of separator mechanical stability is rather straightforward. Separators need to have a certain amount of tensile strength, modulus, and puncture strength in order to fulfill the basic function of preventing electrode contacts during the long life of a battery. The membranes should also have sufficient dimensional stability, without curls and wrinkles, to enable the proper handling of such ultra-thin membranes during the delicate and complex battery cell assembly.
- Thermal stability has been critical to the production and safety of Lithium batteries. During battery assembly, materials going into the cell are typically dried at above 70C under vacuum. Under these conditions, the separator must not shrink significantly. The recent surge of large format batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles (EDVs) has further heightened the demand of low shrinkage film and longer-term thermal stability. The introduction of ceramic-coated separators will also be explored in the paper.
- Chemical stability has been the trademark of polyolefin materials and a key advantage of their use in Lithium battery systems. Scientists in the field have discovered that separator stability against oxidation, especially at voltages above 4.2V and temperatures above 45C, had unusual impact on battery safety and cycle performance.
Lithium-Ion Battery Materials Market; History and Future Forecast
Sachiya Inagaki, Market Researcher, Yano Research Institute
The LIB market has been continuously growing. Need for high-capacitance is strong for small sized LIBs, market of which was thought to be matured, since such small electronics devices as smart phones and tablet PCs recently have shown remarkable growth in demand, while consumers are not satisfied with the battery life of those devices.
LIB market for industrial use including ESS has been gradually rising in Japan and some other countries as renewable energy markets such as the PV market and the Wind Power market grow and the need for the efficient use of electricity and the electric storage, as an electric power failure measure, increase.
While the LIB market for automobile use has not grown as much as expected as the original expectation for the EV market was too high, the demand itself has started to increase mainly for LIB-equipped HEVs and PHEVs that have constantly gain popularity.
As the LIB market expands and the applications diversify, the demand for LIB materials rises as well, which have to meet different specifications and requirements according to the market needs.
In this seminar, I am intending to mainly talk about the market overview, manufactures and technical trends of the four major LIB materials, namely, cathode, anode, electrolyte solutions and separators which largely determine the specifications of LIBs, and about how they are related to the overall LIB market trends. I will also make some recommendations about how LIB material manufacturers should cope with the ever-changing and diversifying market needs.
- Overview of the LIB market
- Overview of the LIB manufactures
- Overview of the four major LIB materials markets
- Market trends by material (Cathode, anode, electrolyte solutions and separators)
- Market overview, manufacturers and technical trends
- Perspectives of the LIB material market
- Appropriate business models to the LIB material manufacturers