Chemistry & Materials for Lead-Based Batteries

Lead-Based Batteries for Next Generation Commercial Applications

28-29 January 2019  (Room: Varsovie)

By 2025, it is expected that the global lead acid battery market will reach $84.46 billion. A significant spike in technological advancements have created smaller, light weight and long lasting lead-based batteries that are critical to the development of the next generation of commercial applications. Using new composite materials and innovative design approaches, researchers are developing high specific energy batteries with long cycle life and low cost. In addition, creative improvements in the use of standard raw materials for lead-acid has led to a dramatic increase in the performance of these batteries. This session will provide an in-depth international overview of the industry, including the latest trends, competitive analysis and examination of the key players and their strategies for market growth.

Final Agenda


Monday, 28 January

8:00 Symposium Registration and Morning Coffee


9:30 Chairperson’s Opening Remarks

Jochen Settelein, PhD, Expert Group Manager Lead-Acid Technology, Fraunhofer R&D Center Electromobility, Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC

9:35 Lead-Based Batteries and the Future EU Regulatory Framework

Rene Schroeder, Executive Director, Association of European Automotive and Industrial Battery Manufacturers

The legislative framework of Battery and ELV Directives is under revision over the next couple of years, while the European Commission is about to take a decision on a potential exemption of all lead compounds in batteries under REACH. The presentation will assess and discuss these legislative developments and their impact on battery manufacturing, including lead-based batteries.

9:55 Review & Future Forecast for the Worldwide Lead-Acid Battery Market

Mark Lu, Industrial Economics and Knowledge Center and Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan

This presentation will cover the current market of LABs worldwide: Shipment, scope and future growth analysis, In addition the demand trends of LAB applications: Automotive starter, industrial use, E-bike and other transportation tools, UPS and back-up power and rhe Chinese LAB industry will be discussed.

10:15 Feast or Famine Ahead for Lead? - Trends and Issues in the Global Lead Market

Neil Hawkes, Commodity Analyst, Lead, CRU

The 2018 step-down in LME lead prices has been largely driven by broader metal price drivers, casting lead’s own somewhat supportive fundamentals to the side lines. The fortunes of the lead-acid battery sector, under threat from the rise of lithium-ion batteries, will be the key factor that determines the lead price path ahead. However, the response of production, both in polymetallic mining and in recycling, will be crucial in determining whether the lead market is facing feast or famine and lead prices looking down or up into the 2020s.

10:35 Networking Coffee Break with Poster Viewing


11:05 New Charge Regime With 87% Efficiency for Forklift Lead-Acid Batteries

Juergen Garche, PhD, CEO, FCBAT

In the material handling sector, electric forklift trucks have a market share of > 50% and this with the heavy lead-acid battery system, which acts also as counterweight. A further increase of this electric market share is hindered by multi-shift operations which need ≥ 3 batteries caused by long charging and cooling times and the need of high energy LABs for high tonnage forklift trucks, where the cooling time is further increasing. With this PSOC operating regime, energy efficiencies of up to 87% can be achieved.

11:25 Progress of the Flooded Type Gen-2 UltraBattery for 14V-Hybrids

Satoshi Shibata, Deputy Manager of UltraBattery R&D Department, The Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd.

By optimizing the negative active mass additives, the 2nd generation UltraBattery achieved both excellent charge acceptability and water loss suppression. We also achieved the target with the very strict NEDC cycle life test. We refer to the mechanism of improvement of negative electrode as well.

11:45 Sponsored Presentation (Opportunity Available)

12:05 Q&A

12:30 Networking Lunch

13:55 Chairperson’s Remarks

Juergen Garche, PhD, CEO, FCBAT

14:00 Advanced Lead to Li-Ion Batteries: Solutions for Any Hybrid Vehicle

Bernd Engwicht, Director Automotive Battery Application Engineering, East Penn Manufacturing Co. 

East Penn’s technologies, including EFB, Synergy, UltraBattery® and ArcActive that can provide single or dual battery solutions within varying vehicle architectures. While lead technologies have also demonstrated impressive results in 48V systems, Li-Ion may play a key role in higher voltage systems. East Penn discusses its role in the future of automotive electrification.

14:20 New Requirements for Li-Ion and PbA Batteries in the Standard Industrial Applications

Bernhard Riegel, PhD, Director, Research, Hoppecke Batterien GmbH & Co. KG

Electrochemical storage for industrial applications in the last decades has been dominated by well established technologies, i.e. mainly by Lead Acid, NiCd, NiMH and NaS. These technologies have been competing for decades with each other in the multiple fields of industrial applications. In our presentation we will report on future prospects for the deployment of lithium and advanced lead acid batteries in traditional reserve and motive power applications – a view from the perspective of an industrial batteries manufacturer.

14:40 Sponsored Presentation (Opportunity Available)

15:00 Q&A

15:15 Refreshment Break with Poster Viewing

15:50 Chairperson’s Remarks

Juergen Garche, PhD, CEO, FCBAT

15:55 The New Challenge of Battery Selection for High Demand Applications

Ola Haggfeldt, Director, Europe, Transportation Division, NorthStar Group

This session will focus on the need to update lead battery ratings for next generation power hungry features. The concept of Lifetime Amp Hours and how they apply to the automotive industry will be presented and discussed.


16:15 Physics-Based Modeling of a Thin Lead Electrode Using a Graphite Foil Current Collector

Mikaël Cugnet, PhD, Battery Expert, CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission)

Increasing the energy density of lead-acid batteries is still in progress. One way to reach this goal is the use of lightweight current collectors, such as graphite to replace lead. Understanding how thin-plate negative electrodes work is possible thanks to a physics-based model specifically designed with an open source software and the minimum number of equations required.

16:35 How Additives Can Enhance the Dynamic Charge Acceptance of EFB Batteries

Jochen Settelein, PhD, Expert Group Manager Lead-Acid Technology, Fraunhofer R&D Center Electromobility, Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC

One major approach to improve the dynamic charge acceptance DCA of automotive batteries is the introduction of additives in the active material. Depending on the material, additives behave differently. They might act as seeding agent, surfactant, surface enhancer or pore builder. This talk will discuss how additives can help to improve the DCA and which properties are required in order to get the highest benefit. A current status of research and development is presented as well as latest results regarding high DCA additives.

16:55 Q&A

17:05 Alpha-Beta Society Membership Award Ceremony

Juergen Garche, PhD, CEO, FCBAT

The Alpha-Beta Society is an informal society of members who have made outstanding contributions to the development of the lead–acid battery system. The Society appoints only one new member per year. The name of the new member will be announced.

17:10 Welcome Reception with Poster Viewing

18:15 Dinner Tutorial Check-In*

20:30 Close of Day

Tuesday, 29 January

7:30 Symposium Registration and Morning Coffee


8:30 Chairperson’s Opening Remarks

Stuart McKenzie, CEO and Managing Director, ArcActive

8:35 High Energy X-Ray Diffraction from Working Lead Batteries

Tim Fister, PhD, Materials Scientist, Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory

I will discuss our studies of sulfation on model lead surfaces as well as XRD mapping on pasted grids from a motorcycle battery during operation. While these results largely focus on pack-level response, I will describe how emerging synchrotron techniques could provide an unprecedented view of atomic level growth and dissolution processes on individual particles.

8:55 Improving Lead Materials Development Through Use of Structural Characterization: Designing Better Lead Alloys

Matthew Raiford, PhD, Senior Process Engineer, Engineering, RSR Technologies

The presentation will discuss microstructural changes and the methods that can be utilized to monitor and quantify better lead sulfate dissolution and faster battery recharge. Examples of resulting alloys will be covered and the effect they have on battery performance.

9:15 Impact of Carbon Additives on Charge Acceptance Under Various Test Protocols

Aurelien Du Pasquier, PhD, Lead Scientist, Cabot

Carbon additives to the negative plates improve significantly in charge acceptance of lead-acid batteries and their cycle life under PSOC conditions. Various charge acceptance protocols used by the industry were applied to test and compare the performance of a series of carbon additives. The impact of carbon morphology and surface treatment on cold crank, water loss and cycle-life at 17.5% DOD were evaluated as well and compared to their performance under various charge acceptance protocols.

9:35 Grafitized Carbon Nanofibers: A New Additive to Improve Lead-Acid Battery High Rate Performance and Cycle Life

Francisco Trinidad, PhD, Director Battery Technology, Exide Technologies

Lead Acid Batteries (LABs) are the most used power source in the automotive industry, in particular, to start the engine and supply the needs of the electrical system of Microhybrid vehicles. In the near future, a significant share of electric vehicles will be deployed provided that a suitable recharging infrastructure is available. In order to match the grid power availability and fast recharging needs of electric vehicles, a energy buffer with low cost and high power to reduce charge time will be needed. Automotive LABs can provide low cost but must be able to work efficiently under High Rate Partial State of Charge (HRPSoC) to compete with other advanced technologies in this application. Under these conditions, LABs progressively accumulate lead sulphate (PbSO4) crystals, charge acceptance is reduced and internal resistance increased, thus causing an early battery failure. The main objective of this work is to enhance power availability and cycle life endurance by creating a conductive network of Graphitized Carbon Nanofibers inside the active material of automotive Lead-Acid batteries.

9:55 Q&A

10:10 Grand Opening Coffee Break with Exhibit & Poster Viewing


11:00 Chairperson’s Remarks

Boris Monahov, PhD, Program Manager, Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) – a program of the International Lead Association (ILA)

11:05 Gassing and Water Loss Measurements on Automotive Lead–Acid Batteries: Dynamic Cycling in Comparison to Steady-State Overcharging

Jonathan Wirth, Chair for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems, Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), RWTH Aachen University

In recent studies, we have found that an oxygen cycle is taking place to a significant amount in modern Ca/Ca flooded lead–acid batteries. Also, correlation between common steady-state overcharge water consumption and water consumption in dynamic operation (e.g. simulated real-world urban and highway driving) is weak to non-existent for EFB+C batteries. We will give an update on our test results and present first results of candidate test runs for a new harmonized key life test.


11:25 Improving Dynamic Charge Acceptance Through Bipolar Architecture

Dan Moomaw, Head, Engineering, Gridtential Energy

One of the most significant new automotive markets is 48V mild hybridization. Lead-acid batteries have not been able to meet technology needs due to poor dynamic charge acceptance. Bipolar batteries can, through architectural changes, significantly improve DCA performance by improving active material utilization and decreasing cell-impedance. Gridtential will present its latest findings on DCA with regards to their Silicon Joule bipolar battery architecture as well as provide general recommendations for improving bipolar further.

11:45 Correlation of Impedance Spectroscopy and Dynamic Charge Acceptance

Sophia Bauknecht, Department of Electrical Energy Storage Technology, Technische Universität Berlin

First of all, the correlation between different charge acceptance tests and other testing methods, such as impedance spectroscopy, is investigated. Thus, several cells are tested concerning their DCA and impedance spectra before and after run-in. Secondly, the correlation for different cell and electrode setups is investigated. Therefore, size and symmetry effects of test cells are evaluated during the measurements. The results of this study will claim whether it is sufficient to use small test cells to test new materials or cell designs, since building complete batteries from each new test material is quite cost intensive.

12:05 Molecular Rebar® in Enhanced Flooded Batteries: Customer study on Enhanced DCA & Cycle Life using Molecular Rebar 

Paul Everill, PhD, Vice President, Research & Development, Black Diamond Structures

Discrete carbon nanotubes can be dispersed in an aqueous solution and added directly to the pasting mix for either negative or positive lead-acid battery plates. These additives markedly improve the ability for batteries to be charged quickly, withstand cycling abuse better, reduce the growth of damaging sulfation, and ultimately provide more consistent performance resulting in longer life. These nanotubes, known as MOLECULAR REBAR®, can easily be incorporated into existing pasting lines. They have yielded benefits in full-scale production batteries in a wide variety of applications. This presentation focuses on shared customer development in Enhanced Flooded Batteries (EFB) using MOLECULAR REBAR® in the Negative Active Mass (NAM) to achieve EN DCA and Life Cycle targets.

12:25 Q&A

12:40 Networking Lunch

13:55 Dessert Break with Exhibit & Poster Viewing

14:40 Chairperson’s Remarks

Rene Schroeder, Executive Director, Association of European Automotive and Industrial Battery Manufacturers

14:45 DCA Battery Data with Water Consumption with Carbon Fibre Based Negative Electrodes

Stuart McKenzie, CEO and Managing Director, ArcActive

Latest DCA (Homologation and Real World) Data along with Water Consumption and other key tests for batteries with ArcActive’s Carbon Fibre based negative electrodes. Is this the technical solution to address both OEM DCA and water consumption requirements?

15:05 Suppression of High Temperature Water Loss in High DCA Lead Batteries for Micro-Hybrid Applications

Alistair Davidson, PhD, Products and Sustainability Director, International Lead Association

Boris Monahov, PhD, Program Manager, Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) – a program of the International Lead Association (ILA)

This presentation will assess the current situation with regard to lead batteries in 12V automotive applications. It will review ALABC projects which have shown encouraging new results. These have included investigating a range of topics relevant to automotive lead batteries such as the effect of carbon and other additives, as well as of elevated temperature on water loss, the mechanism of early DCA decline and of hydrogen evolution at high temperature PSoC operation.

15:25 PANEL DISCUSSION: Automotive Lead-Acid: Advancing Technology to Compete with Lithium Ion

Moderator: Christian Rosenkranz, PhD, Vice President Engineering & Product Development EMEA, Johnson Controls Autobatterien GmbH

Panelists: Eckhard Karden, PhD, Technical Expert Battery & Energy Storage Technology, Advanced Power Supply & Energy Management, Ford Research & Advanced Engineering, Europe

Rene Schroeder, Executive Director, Association of European Automotive and Industrial Battery Manufacturers

Boris Monahov, PhD, Program Manager, Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) – a program of the International Lead Association (ILA)

Stuart McKenzie, CEO and Managing Director, ArcActive

The growth in start/stop batteries for the vehicle market has provided lead acid batteries with opportunities growth. This panel will examine what the technological advancements are such as DCA that will allow lead based batteries to gain market share and compete effectively in the energy storage marketplace.

16:25 Networking Reception with Exhibit & Poster Viewing (Sponsorship Opportunity Available)

17:25 Dinner Tutorial Check-In*

20:30 Close of Day

* Separate registration required