2021 Archived Content

Battery Recycling Symposium

Advanced Recycling Methods for Sustainable Battery Materials Supply

19 - 20 January 2021 ALL TIMES CET

As EV adoption becomes mainstream and more vehicles in all market sectors move to expand their EV product offerings, the need for sustainable battery materials from recycling sources will grow exponentially. This conference will bring together the key international organizations in the battery recycling value chain including battery manufacturers, R&D, recyclers, OEMs and policy-makers to present the latest advances in recycling technologies, market overview and international regulatory implementation.

Tuesday, 19 January

RECYCLING METHODS

09:00

Solvent Extraction in Battery Recycling – Criteria for Diluent Selection

Daniel Bien, PhD, Global Fluid Technology Advisor, Performance Liquids Technology, ExxonMobil Petroleum & Chemical

Solvent extraction plays an important role in the recovery of “critical materials” like Cobalt and Nickel and more recently also Lithium in the recycling process of batteries. The diluent impacts not only the performance but also certain aspects of sustainability of the process. The paper will present criteria and industry examples of how to select the most suitable diluent.

09:20

Recycling of Different Battery Types: A First LCA-Based Sustainability Perspective

Marcel Weil, Scientific Research Group Leader, Research for Sustainable Energy Technologies, ITAS & HIU, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

The end of life phase of batteries has a significant contribution to the overall environmental impact of such systems. But, the present used pyro- and hydro-metallurgical processes are connected with relatively high demand in energy or materials. Thus, the environmental efforts of the recycling process and the gained environmental value of the produced secondary raw materials have to be considered to estimate the net impacts. Problematic seems the trend towards decreased material values within the batteries, which significantly influences the net impact of the recycling process.

09:40

Blueprint for a Li-Ion Battery Recycling Factory in Europe – A Must-Have for Sustainable Electric Mobility

Markus Hackmann, Managing Director, E Mobility, P3 Automotive GmbH

Following the strong growth of e-mobility, significant volumes of EOL batteries are expected to flood the market from 2025, exceeding 670 kT by 2030 – a tremendous value pool which simultaneously provides chances for sustainability. Employing efficient hydrometallurgical recycling methods allows for ecofriendly recovery of materials with reduced CO2 footprint compared to conventional mining routes, especially for localized recycling setups omitting complex logistics. P3 will provide an overview over current Li-ion cell CO2 footprint as well as potentials for a European cell recycling company.

10:00 Session Break - View Our Virtual Exhibit Hall
10:20

Solvent-Based Sustainable Recycling of Lead-Acid Batteries

Ola Hekselman, Faraday Institution Entrepreneurial Fellow, Imperial College London

According to UNICEF and Pure Earth’s report from July 2020, one in three children around the world may be suffering from lead poisoning, with children in low- and in middle-income countries being most severely affected. Lead pollution originates predominantly from informal recycling of used lead-acid batteries, done in unmonitored facilities without necessary workers’ protection and environmental controls. One of the answers to this problem can be providing an environmentally friendly alternative to an intrinsically polluting, smelting-based lead recycling. Solveteq and Imperial College London are developing a low-temperature technology that requires significantly less energy to recover lead and lead materials, while reducing emissions of hazardous air pollutants and production of slag. Currently, Solveteq is at the prototyping stage and first results from its feasibility studies, and our technical road map will be presented.

10:40

Improving Cost and Safety with Cathode-Healing and Whole Battery Deactivation

Steve Sloop, PhD, President, OnTo Technology LLC

Lithium-ion recycling is challenged by cost and safety related to reactivity of lithium and electrolytes.  OnTo’s deactivation eliminates flammability and residual reactivity, enabling a roadmap for safe, low-cost, end-of-life battery services essential to the industry.  Deactivation coupled with Cathode-healing provides safety and efficiency in material recycling that can be applied all along the manufacturing value chain. Dr. Sloop will present recent developments in application and scale of these innovative technologies.

11:00 Sponsored Presentation (Opportunity Available)
11:40 MODERATED Q&A:

Session Wrap-Up

Panel Moderator:
Sascha Nowak, PhD, Head of Analytics & Environmental, Electrochemical Energy Technology, University of Münster
Panelists:
Daniel Bien, PhD, Global Fluid Technology Advisor, Performance Liquids Technology, ExxonMobil Petroleum & Chemical
Marcel Weil, Scientific Research Group Leader, Research for Sustainable Energy Technologies, ITAS & HIU, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Markus Hackmann, Managing Director, E Mobility, P3 Automotive GmbH
Ola Hekselman, Faraday Institution Entrepreneurial Fellow, Imperial College London
Steve Sloop, PhD, President, OnTo Technology LLC
12:10 Session Break - View Our Virtual Exhibit Hall
12:40

Possible Dangers in Handling and Storing of Lithium-Ion Batteries during Recycling

Sascha Nowak, PhD, Head of Analytics & Environmental, Electrochemical Energy Technology, University of Münster

The widespread use of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in a multitude of industrial and private applications has led to the need for recycling and reutilization of their constituent components. However, due to their high voltage, high stored energy and reactive components, lithium-ion batteries can present a specific and significant hazard potential. This especially comes into play during recycling because nearly every safety precaution of a battery system and battery cell needs to be bypassed. These hazards of LIBs can be roughly divided into different areas: electrical hazard; fire and explosion hazard; and chemical hazard. Here, in this work, we focus on the chemical-based potential hazards with regard to the storage and handling of the cells.

13:00

Direct Recycling and Upcycling of Cathode Material with 6K’s UniMelt® Plasma Platform

Richard Holman, PhD, Vice President, Battery Products, 6K

6K has developed a flexible, robust, and highly scalable low-cost materials production platform based on its patented UniMelt® microwave plasma systems.  This platform has been deployed for the mass production of advanced powders for the additive manufacturing space and for the development of next generation anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials for lithium ion.  6K is now applying this technology to the direct recycling and upcycling of EoL cathode materials.  In this presentation, we will discuss 6K’s unique process for the rejuvenation of cathode materials, restoring lost lithium, repairing mechanical cycling damage, and supplementing the chemistry to upcycle older generation cathodes to today’s state-of-the-art. This is achieved with a low capital, small footprint production system that can readily be placed at or near the site of the recovery facility, facilitated by its modest energy requirements and zero solid or liquid waste production.

13:20

Particle-Based Characterization of Lithium-Ion Battery Components in Recycling Processes by Using Automated Mineralogy

Anna Vanderbruggen, PhD Candidate, Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology

This research presents the development of a new analytical procedure based on individual particle characterization in order to monitor and diagnose lithium-ion battery recycling. Automated mineralogy combines high-resolution backscatter electron images with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. This method enables the acquisition of particle-based information such as elemental and phase composition, morphology, association and degree of liberation. This study compares the liberation efficiency of two recycling routes, mechanical and thermo-mechanical.

13:40 Sponsored Presentation (Opportunity Available)
14:00 Session Break - View Our Virtual Exhibit Hall
14:20

Recycling: Debunking the Urban (Mining) Myths

Filip Delalieux, PhD, Director of Innovation, Umicore

With massive vehicle electrification happening within this decade, raw material demand will skyrocket. There is wide industry consensus that an effective closed loop solution (recycling metals back to their original battery application) is a crucial part of that meeting metal demand. But this is where industry consensus usually ends. This presentation aims to debunk some of the myths that continue to exist in the recycling community.

EUROPEAN REGULATORY LANDSCAPE, TRANSPORTATION & SAFETY

14:40

The EU Regulation Impact on the Battery's Circular Economy

Claude Chanson, PhD, General Manager, Recharge

The EU Commission has proposed a number of measures to promote the production of more sustainable batteries in EU in October 2020. Some specific requirements about the minimum content of recycled materials in the new batteries may have an important impact. Why such a requirement and what are the expected benefits and practical implementation limits? An analysis of consequences on the innovation and development of future batteries technologies will be presented, associated with industry recommendations.

15:00

Who Will Win the Future Traction Battery Recycling Market in the European Union?

Wenzel Prochazka, Senior Product Manager, Battery Systems, AVL List GmbH

When a battery spent its stable life portion in a traction application and was used to a point in which recycling pays off, it will enter the stage for the recycling market. Who is running for winning this business with what technology and which possible business case? A methodic market study by AVL Strategy Engineers and AVL sheds light on the race between European companies developing technologies and Chinese companies already running implemented processes. In this presentation, the question, if the recycling of traction batteries in Europe is a profitable, long-term business to invest into, will be discussed. 

15:20

Future Scenarios for LIB Recycling in Europe, US, China and Japan

Akihito Fujita, Senior Manager, Research & Consulting, Nomura Research Institute America Inc.

Market trend, regulations, key players, and technological development surrounding LIB recycling vary greatly from region to region. Based on the future outlook of EV market in each region, we will introduce our hypothesis on the risks and business opportunities in LIB recycling. Also we will consider multiple scenarios for the LIB recycling market expansion.

16:00 MODERATED Q&A:

Session Wrap-Up

Panel Moderator:
Markus Hackmann, Managing Director, E Mobility, P3 Automotive GmbH
Panelists:
Sascha Nowak, PhD, Head of Analytics & Environmental, Electrochemical Energy Technology, University of Münster
Richard Holman, PhD, Vice President, Battery Products, 6K
Anna Vanderbruggen, PhD Candidate, Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology
Claude Chanson, PhD, General Manager, Recharge
Wenzel Prochazka, Senior Product Manager, Battery Systems, AVL List GmbH
Akihito Fujita, Senior Manager, Research & Consulting, Nomura Research Institute America Inc.
Filip Delalieux, PhD, Director of Innovation, Umicore
16:50 Interactive Roundtable Discussions - View Our Virtual Exhibit Hall

Join your colleagues and fellow delegates for a focused, informal discussion moderated by a member of our speaking faculty. A small group format allows participants to meet potential collaborators, share examples from their own work and discuss ideas with peers.

ROUNDTABLE 1: Basic Science Research and Advanced Lead Batteries for Automotive Energy Storage Systems Batteries

Matthew Raiford, Manager, Consortium For Battery Innovation
  • Overview of recently analyzed lead battery performance data from 12V start-stop and micro-hybrid applications and 48V mild-hybrid applications
  • Future battery science developments in line with the new CBI Technical Program and their potential application for future vehicles
  • How do the energy cost per mile compare? What are the infrastructure cost per mile compare?
  • How is research in lead batteries improving key features such as functional safety and extreme temperature performance and durability?
  • What are the prospects for the future?

    ROUNDTABLE 2: Battery Pack System Cost and Safety - Will Future xEV Battery Packs Increase in Complexity or Simplify and How Will Cost and Safety Be Impacted?

    Kevin Konecky, Battery and Energy Storage System Consultant, Total Battery Consulting
    • How will pack designs change to mitigate the increased failure modes of Nickel-rich chemistries?
    • What materials might be added to increase safety?
    • i.e. thermal event mitigation materials
    • Will BMS designs increase or decrease in complexity?
    • Redundancy for functional safety or de-contented BMS similar to NiMH?
    • What system-level (non-cell) cost reductions are possible for 2025? 

      ROUNDTABLE 3: Li-Ion Cell Design and Manufacturing: Processes, Equipment and Quality Control

      James Kaschmitter, CEO, SpectraPower LLC
      • Experiences and lessons-learned in building and operating Li-Ion battery manufacturing plants
      • Which cell format is the most manufacturable: cylindrical, prismatic or pouch?
      • What are the key challenges for manufacturing large format (vs. small format) cells?
      • How cell design can impact manufacturing processes, yields and quality contro
      • Which areas of the manufacturing process are most difficult to implement?
      • What quality control disciplines are most efficient and effective (Six-Sigma, etc)?
      • Choosing. qualifying and managing equipment and material vendors
      • Is it feasible to go straight from prototype to high volume manufacturing?
      • Managing Engineering Changes
      • Managing and reducing cell manufacturing costs
      • What are the safety risks during manufacturing and how can we handle these risks?    

      ROUNDTABLE 4: How Can Calorimetry Help in Battery Research?

      Carlos Ziebert, PhD, Head of Calorimeter Ctr, Thermophysics & Thermodynamics Grp, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
      • What different types of calorimeters can be used for battery research?
      • What different tests can be performed?
      • What results can be obtained from calorimetry to improve cell performance, BMS, TMS or safety?
      • What are the current limits of calorimetry in battery research?
      • Who is already using calorimetry for battery research?
      17:50 Close of Day

      Wednesday, 20 January

      COST-EFFECTIVE RECYCLING

      09:00

      ReCell: Working to Make Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Profitable

      Jeffrey S. Spangenberger, Director, ReCell Center, Argonne National Laboratory

      There remains significant area for improvement for cost-effective electric vehicle battery recycling. Many of these batteries cost money to properly recycle, and this issue will continue to grow as battery chemistries use less cobalt.  The ReCell Center is working to increase the economic attractiveness of battery recycling by developing direct cathode-recycling technologies and other processing strategies that will improve the economics of recycling these products.  This presentation will provide background information about the center, as well as an update on its progress.

      RECYCLING MARKET DEMAND

      09:20

      Creating a Local Critical Battery Materials Supply Chain

      Kunal Phalpher, Chief Commercial Officer, Business Development & Operations, Li-Cycle Corp.

      This presentation will explore the need for localizing the critical battery materials supply chain in new regions, while addressing the economic and sustainability challenges of lithium-ion battery recycling and how Li-Cycle®’s Hub-and-Spoke model is able to help overcome some of these industry challenges, particularly in light of the recent pandemic. It is known that Li-ion batteries play an essential role in the global transition toward electrification of transport. According to BNEF’s recent study, worldwide electric vehicle sales will rise from 2 million in 2018 to 56 million by 2040, which accumulated 559 million electric vehicles will be on the road worldwide. However, much of the supply chain, from raw materials through production, is scattered throughout the world, requiring materials to cross many oceans before a battery is produced, predominantly in Asia. One way to deal with this problem is to have a viable option for creating a secondary source of these critical materials from the rapidly growing volumes of spent lithium-ion batteries, in conjunction with the projected growth in battery production in regions such as Europe and North America. The world needs improved technology and supply chain innovations to recycle these batteries locally, and more sustainability to meet the rapidly growing demand for critical and scarce battery-grade materials and close the loop in this market. Li-Cycle™ provides a solution for this gap through an innovative and sustainable resource recovery process that can bring a piece of the battery supply chain, critical material supply, to new regions of the world. Li-Cycle Corp. is a clean technology company aiming to address this challenge and support the industry to meet the rapidly growing demand for critical battery materials. Being one of few companies focused solely on recycling Li-ion batteries, Li-Cycle® has a unique insight into the challenges and opportunities of the industry, as well as the necessity for proper end-of-life logistics management. Li-Cycle Technology™ uses a combination of mechanical size reduction and hydrometallurgical resource recovery that is specifically designed for lithium-ion battery recycling. The process results in a recovery rate of 80-100%, which is unparalleled in industry, and end-products are high quality and battery-grade, promoting a circular economy.

      09:40

      Beyond Comminution: Next-Generation Battery Recycling Leveraging AI, Automation & Industry 4.0

      Gavin Harper, University of Birmingham

      Many current approaches to EV battery recycling focus on comminution (shredding) as a preliminary treatment step. In doing so, a great deal of value is destroyed as materials are mixed together. Whilst mechanically simple, this results in additional technical complexity later in the recycling process. This talk explores the future of battery recycling and how it will employ more sophisticated disassembly, robotics and AI to recover more value from batteries.

      10:00 Sponsored Presentation (Opportunity Available)
      10:40 MODERATED Q&A:

      Session Wrap-Up

      Panel Moderator:
      Steve Sloop, PhD, President, OnTo Technology LLC
      Panelists:
      Jeffrey S. Spangenberger, Director, ReCell Center, Argonne National Laboratory
      Kunal Phalpher, Chief Commercial Officer, Business Development & Operations, Li-Cycle Corp.
      Gavin Harper, University of Birmingham
      11:10 Session Break - View Our Virtual Exhibit Hall
      11:30 Close of Battery Recycling Symposium

      PLENARY KEYNOTE SESSION PANEL: EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND INDUSTRY PERSPECTIVES

      11:45 Plenary Solutions Theatre (Sponsorship Opportunities Available)

      This panel session will feature a series of short podium presentations on emerging technologies and industry perspectives in vehicle electrification. Each speaker will have 7-8 minutes to present. After all speakers have presented, there will be a moderated Q&A between the speakers and attendees. The presentations are not meant to be a corporate or specific product pitch. Each speaker will focus on a technology and solution framed around a problem or issue related to the expanding market of advanced vehicles and how their organization is solving it.

      Thomas Fine, Global Market Manager Battery, High Performance Polymers, Arkema

      Inside and outside the battery cell, Arkema has the market leading technology portfolio of specialty materials for battery systems to increase efficiency, safety and reliability. Despite the impressive progress in lithium ion energy storage technologies achieved today, the challenges faced by battery systems remain significant in terms of energy densities, cost optimization and improved safety performance and durable cycle life. Our solutions help to optimize a better performance and improve the battery energy density, duration, weight reduction and recharging time.  Our market-leading portfolio of solutions for battery cover applications inside and outside the cell, from cell to module and battery pack assembly up to battery system integration into the vehicle. We offer you a 360° view on Arkema Battery Solutions in few minutes.

      Neil Collins, PhD, Technology Director, Battery Materials, Johnson Matthey

      A global leader in sustainable technologies, JM’s vision is for a world that is cleaner and healthier today and for future generations. By applying cutting edge science, Johnson Matthey Battery Materials are creating solutions together with customers that make a real difference to the world around us. Our commitment meeting customer needs is illustrated by our long-term experience in Life Power® LFP manufacturing, Fuel-cell Technology and Johnson Matthey's 40+ years of serving the autocatalyst industry.

      Stella Deheryan, Application Manager, Emerging Technologies, JSR Micro NV

      JSR is a research-oriented organization that pursues close collaborations with leading innovators in a number of industries that are key to the present and future welfare of human society: energy storage, life sciences, electronic materials, display and optical materials. In the energy storage field JSR provides high quality aqueous binders, paving the way to environmental-friendly and cost-effective manufacturing. Our water based binders have superior adhesion and can be used in lower concentrations leading to increased battery rate and cycle life performance. JSR has aqueous binders suited for both anode and cathode chemistries. Our products have excellent compatibility with materials for new generation Ni-rich cathodes and high energy anodes.

      Sandeep Unnikrishnan, Program Manager, High Performance Batteries, Holst Centre

      Interfacial engineering is seen as the key to enable more reliable and durable Li-ion batteries. A stable artificial SEI on the high-voltage cathode side and on the anode side are crucial for long-term cyclability of the battery. Compared to pre-passivation of active materials, post-passivation of electrode foils has the benefit of lower interfacial electronic impedance. In this presentation, an innovative high throughput scalable technology will be presented that can do atmospheric pressure, gas-phase passivation of electrode foils for next-generation battery applications.

      Peter Kritzer, rer. nat., E-Mobility & Batteries, Freudenberg FST GmbH

      Increased energy density on cell & system level as well as new trends of "Super Charging" result in greater safety challenges. The presentation will show two system components designed to contribute to the improvement of battery safety: a) DIAvent - Overpressure valves with reversible capabilities. and b) Heat Shields - thermal barriers counteracting thermal propagation as well as mechanically balancing the cell modules. Additional innovative concepts will be explored aimed to enhance the safety of future battery systems. To best achieve the targets of each individual battery system, it is highly recommended that specific joint development is needed.

      12:40 MODERATED Q&A::

      Session Wrap-Up

      Panel Moderator:
      Brian Barnett, PhD, President, Battery Perspectives
      Panelists:
      Thomas Fine, Global Market Manager Battery, High Performance Polymers, Arkema
      Neil Collins, PhD, Technology Director, Battery Materials, Johnson Matthey
      Stella Deheryan, Application Manager, Emerging Technologies, JSR Micro NV
      Sandeep Unnikrishnan, Program Manager, High Performance Batteries, Holst Centre
      Peter Kritzer, rer. nat., E-Mobility & Batteries, Freudenberg FST GmbH
      13:05 Refresh Break - View Our Virtual Exhibit Hall




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