AABC Europe 2016
25-28 January 2016
Battery Engineering Symposium
Advanced Automotive Battery Conferences
AABC Europe 2016 – Battery Engineering Symposium
| || || ||Session 1: Energy Storage System Thermal Design and Durability|
Energy-storage pack design and integration present thermal engineering challenges almost independent of cell chemistry. In this session, thermal components and system developers and suppliers will discuss advances in battery-pack thermal design.
|8:30||-||8:35||Chairperson’s Opening Remarks|
Masato Origuchi, EV Battery Development Group Leader, Renault
|8:35||-||8:55||New Challenges for Increasing EV Range|
Dr. Julien Marie, EV Battery Development Technical Leader, Renault
Increasing the battery capacity for extending the driving range of EV is the key for ramping up the EV market volume after the launch of the first generation EVs. The drastic increase in usable energy of the battery requires technical breakthrough not only in the cell chemistry itself but in the integration of such battery in the vehicle packaging.
This presentation will illustrate the new challenges in EV battery development when increasing the driving range, as listed below:
- Key dimensioning parameters of higher capacity cell and module
- The possible evolution of the customer usage: mileage, type of driving, charging speed, SOC range
- Packaging and thermal constraints
- Trade-off between cycle durability and energy density
|8:55||-||9:15||Design- and Integration-Process of HV-Batteries in Passenger Cars|
Christian Brommer, Manager, Cluster Mechanical Engineering, Deutsche ACCUmotive
Alfred Jeckel, Manager, HV Battery Design/Testing, Daimler AG
The electrification of vehicle powertrain is an ongoing trend in the automotive industry. To reduce development time and to design an optimum product, a close collaboration between car manufacturer and battery manufacturer is necessary.
In recent projects, the teamwork of Daimler and Deutsche ACCUmotive was an important base for a successful product development.
This presentation will show the design and integration process of HV-Batteries for Mercedes-Benz and smart vehicles.
- Specification of Battery Requirements derived from vehicle demands (location, performance, assembly, multiple use)
- Specification of Interfaces (cooling, mechanical interfaces, electrical connection, venting)
- Battery concepts: comparison of several battery concepts and built-up of the most promising concepts
- Common decision for concept (safety, reliability, costs, weight, range)
- Subcomponent design and specification (Cell, E/E, cooling, housing), first model for simulation of thermal and performance behavior
- Testing on test bench (mechanical, thermal, lifetime) and first implementation into vehicle (software integration, EMC, cooling integration)
- Improvement due to test results, preparation of series production
- (summer- / winter-test; crash; performance) Test-batteries with over 200 sensors for optimization of range of use
- Production range up in battery plant and vehicle plant
|9:15||-||9:35||Battery Thermal Management|
Julien Tissot, Research Engineer, Valeo
Vehicle electrification is an increasing trend, and chemistry is delivering more and more power and energy density; consequently, thermal need becomes bigger. This is placing the battery thermal management as a key system, but that can not be considered as "stand alone" anymore, but needs to be integrated within a complete system approach, at the vehicle level, in order to bring the best efficiency to the vehicle need. This presentation intends to show different technologies to maintain Li-Ion batteries within the optimum range of temperature, but as well different possible system architectures.
|9:35||-||9:55||xEV Battery System & Subsystem Review|
Kevin Konecky, Battery Systems Consultant, Total Battery Consulting
Lithium-Ion battery systems are an enabling technology in the propagation of xEV’s (Hybrid-Electric Vehicles, Plug-in Hybrid-Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicles). Battery systems are a complex system integrating multiple subsystems including battery cells/modules, mechanical, thermal, BMS hardware & BMS software subsystems.
This presentation will take a look at a large number of xEV’s currently in production and discuss trends and diversity in the subsystem design choices that were implemented in each production system.
Two important aspects of the battery system are safety and cost. Impacts of subsystem design on these two areas will also be discussed.
|10:10||-||11:00||Grand Opening Coffee Break with Exhibit & Poster Viewing|
| || || ||Session 2: Energy-Storage System Electrical Design and Management|
Considering the high-voltage, long-life, and high-reliability requirements of the automotive and industrial applications on the one hand, and the volatility of the Li-Ion chemistry on the other, current battery packs include multiple electrical and mechanical components to ensure system reliability. In this session, pack designers and electrical and mechanical component suppliers will discuss the new developments that aim to simplify system design and reduce cost while ensuring system reliability.
|11:00||-||11:05||Chairperson’s Opening Remarks|
Masato Origuchi, EV Battery Development Group Leader, Renault
|11:05||-||11:25||Is Small or Big Beautiful and Cost Efficient? - A Cost and Benchmark Study of ZOE vs. Tesla Battery|
Dr. Uwe Wiedemann, Senior Product Manager, AVL List GmbH
Cost is one of the most prominent aspects in the media today when E-mobility is being discussed. In a technical engineering perspective, cost needs to be considered in relation to other targets such as safety, durability and lifetime, and – of course – performance. Doing so, it is possible to differentiate more or less efficient systems; or in other words better and worse system designs.
AVL Powertrain Engineering is an expert partner to the global automotive and mobility industry for the development of innovative powertrain systems. The competencies in batteries for electrification comprise cell, module and pack testing and benchmarking, mechanical and electrical design engineering, mechanical and thermal simulation, prototype and A/B sample build, BMS development (HW and SW) for series production as well as battery system validation.
Based on this expertise, AVL is able to determine the best trade-off between the conflicting targets such as performance and cost for its different customers: cell/module suppliers, pack developers or OEM. This presentation will:
- Present findings from two benchmark projects (Tesla Model S and Renault ZOE)
- Reflect on the distinctions between larger and smaller battery systems
- Provide insight into the two batteries’ cost breakdowns
- Relate the cost structures to the technical contribution of each subsystem (mechanic, EE, thermal) to the overall targets of safety, durability etc.
- Showcase implications on target costs and how an optimized battery system design can be reached systematically.
|11:25||-||11:45||Has Battery Management for Li-Ion Battery Packs Already become a Commodity?|
Dr. Peter Pichler, Director, Product Management, Marketing & Product Management, Samsung SDI Battery Systems GmbH
|11:45||-||12:05||Reducing Battery Specific Costs using Advanced Battery Management Systems|
Dr. Olivier Cois, General Manager, Research and Development, Robert Bosch GmbH
The reduction of battery costs is nowadays one of the most challenging tasks to enable a wide market deployment of electromobility. In addition to conventional cost-down measures (Optimization of battery designs, manufacturing processes, supplier chain, business models, etc.), managing batteries using advanced algorithms can lead to significant specific cost savings by tackling technological roadblocks. Advanced Battery Modelling and Control techniques enable wider (and non-conservative) usages of batteries at operating points corresponding to optimal trade-offs between Performance and Ageing.
Specifically, in this presentation we will:
- Examine the trends of PHEV & EV Li-Ion Battery Systems for the next generation
- Review the structures and functions of Battery Management Systems
- Present strategies increasing usable energy and fast charging performances
- Illustrate the advantage of Advanced Modelling through concrete examples of BMS development
|12:05||-||12:25||Requirements on Data Acquisition in Battery Management Systems|
Dr. Kai Peter Birke, Professor, Electrical Energy Storage Systems,
Institute of Photovoltaics, University of Stuttgart;
Jan Singer, Research Assistant, University of Stuttgart
Modern Battery Management Systems (BMS) have tremendous requirements of data acquisition rates and accuracy of measurements. The ASIL C demand for BMS thereby is one of the essential future challenges in automotive industry. Especially the monitoring of the cell voltage in order to keep charge and discharge limits is essential for safety (overvoltage) and lifetime (undervoltage). Unfortunately both, high sampling rates and high accuracy, increase costs and complexity of BMS due to expensive and complex electronic components. In this paper:
- requirements regarding must have accuracy of different Li-Ion cell chemistries are determined,
- lowering of sample rating times as an essential optimization parameter is outlined,
- appropriate and flexible upper and lower voltage limits for Li-Ion chemistries regarding the best compromise between usable energy content, safety and costs are presented,
- special requirements on measurement accuracy and speed for temperatures lower than 0° C are discussed,
- approaches for best cost BMS with sufficient low temperature reliability will be shown.
|12:40||-||13:55||Networking LUNCH |
|13:55||-||14:40||Dessert Break with Exhibit & Poster Viewing |
| || || ||Session 3: Lithium-Ion Battery Safety and Abuse Tolerance|
Safety of the early large Li-Ion battery installations will have the greatest impact on market acceptance for the technology in automotive and industrial/stationary applications. In this session we will discuss safety enhancement technology and abuse tolerance validation in automotive and stationary/industrial usage.
|14:40 ||-||14:45||Chairperson’s Opening Remarks|
Heinz-Willi Vassen, Manager Energy and Storage Systems, Audi AG
|14:45||-||15:05||Safety Testing for xEV Batteries – Comparison of Test Standards and Validation Procedures|
Michael Geppert, Chief Engineer, TÜV SÜD Battery Testing GmbH
Today a large variety of test standards and specifications are available in the field of safety validation of xEV batteries. Additionally, new methods and tests develop from growing experience with this technology. This presentation will compare various test standards and validation processes, focusing on:
- Comparison of test standards and homologation processes in Europe, North America and China
- Lessons learned and future developments
- Current examples of safety validation tests
|15:05||-||15:25||Flammability of Li-Ion Battery Electrolytes|
Dr. Mario Wachtler, Team Leader, ZSW – Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg
The inherent (thermal) safety of Li-ion batteries (LIBs) is determined by the safety of each cell component as well as by the interactions between the single components. One of the most critical constituents is the electrolyte. The state-of-the-art electrolytes are based on LiPF6 as electrolyte salt and mixtures of cyclic and linear organic carbonates as solvents. Especially the linear carbonates are highly volatile and flammable, and show flash points around room temperature. Due to their high volatility they dominate the behaviour of the whole electrolyte solution. In combination with an oxidant and an ignition source they can cause fires (and explosions). The availability of reliable descriptors of flammability is essential for the investigation of the flammability behaviour. Flash point and self-extinguishing time (SET) are the most common measures of flammability used by the battery community. Strategies to mitigate the fire hazard associated with the electrolyte include, for instance, the use of non-flammable electrolyte solvents and of flame-retardant electrolyte additives. Only with safe electrolytes will it be possible to build safer LIBs and batteries beyond LIBs.
This presentation will address:
- Procedures for flash point and self-extinguishing time (SET) measurements
- The comparison of flash points and SETs for a large number of solvents and electrolyte formulations
- The effect of the addition of flame retardants and ionic liquids to the electrolyte on the flammability
- Results from standardised safety tests of Li4Ti5O12 / LiFePO4 pouch cells with conventional electrolytes and electrolytes with low flammability
|15:25||-||15:45||Detection and Characterization of Lithium Plating in Commercial Cells|
Dr. Michael Danzer, Head of Department (Deputy), Electrochemical Accumulators (ECA), ZSW – Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg
The deposition of metallic lithium on the negative electrode, also referred to as lithium plating, is one of the severest aging processes in lithium-ion batteries. Triggered by cell operation at high charging currents and low temperatures, lithium plating impairs the cell performance due to capacity loss and impedance rise. Furthermore, the deposited lithium may grow as dendrites that pose a serious safety hazard to the cell and its environment. In the laboratory the conditions for lithium plating, where the potential of the negative electrode falls below 0 V against the Li/Li+ potential, are measured by introducing reference electrodes close to the cell’s anode. The verification that lithium plating occurred is done by cell opening and postmortem analysis. This presentation introduces different approaches for a non-destructive detection of lithium plating on the full cell level and focuses on:
- The polarization behavior of cells before and after plating
- The detection of reversible plating processes through differential voltage analysis
- The direct detection of lithium plating in pre-aged cells at room temperature
- Degradation processes leading to a higher susceptibility to plating and
- The ageing behavior of cells under plating conditions
|15:45||-||16:05||Safety Enhancement Technology for Hard Shorts in Contrast to Soft Shorts|
Dr. Brian Barnett, Vice President, TIAX LLC
Under suitable triggers/abuses, Li-ion cells can experience thermal runaway, i.e., a rapid increase in cell temperature accompanied by venting, vent-with-flame, ejection of cell parts, fire and explosion. Internal short circuits are the most commonly identified mechanism by which most safety failures occur in the field. In pursuit of a better understanding of these types of failures, we employed a variety of experimental methods to investigate the mechanism by which internal shorts develop and progress when originating from manufacturing defects, in contrast to "hard" shorts that result from crash/crush/penetration events. Our experiments clearly reinforce the significance that underlying physics for these different failure mechanisms can be quite different, with different reaction kinetics and timing to failure post trigger. This presentation will discuss the key issues associated with characterizing each of the classes of internal short, providing data from a variety of tests we have carried out, and then suggesting specific approaches by which each type of short can be managed effectively in Li-ion battery packs. Key topics discussed will include:
- Data illustrating the differences in mechanism and time-based progression between grown-in internal shorts and hard shorts that result from crash/crush/penetration.
- Approaches that can be employed in battery packs to provide suitable protections.
- Effectiveness and applicability of standardized safety tests for each class of short.
- Availability of technical solutions that address each failure mode.
- Short detection technology and hardware that can provide reliable early detection and opportunities for productive intervention (with demonstration).
- Summary: how each type of internal short can be managed.
|16:05||-||16:25||Fault-Tolerant BMS Design Concept|
Minkyu Lee, CTO, Navitas Solutions, Inc.
|16:45||-||17:45|| Networking Reception with Exhibit & Poster Viewing|