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AABC Europe 2016
25-28 January 2016
Mainz, Germany



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Lithium Battery Chemistry Symposium

Advanced Automotive Battery Conferences

AABC Europe 2016 – Lithium Battery Chemistry Symposium


Tuesday 26 January 2016


   Session 1: Lithium-Ion Materials R&D
In this session, leading materials R&D professionals will review the prospects of advanced cathodes, anodes, and electrolytes to deliver better performance, life, and safety, at equal or lower cost than current chemistries, and to provide enhanced value for large Li-Ion batteries.
8:30-8:35Chairperson’s Opening Remarks
Prof. Martin Winter, Chair, Applied Materials Science for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion, Institute of Physical Chemistry (IPC) - Founding Scientific Director, MEET Battery Research Center, WWU Münster - Founding Director, Helmholtz Institute “Ionics in Energy Storage”
8:35-8:55SEI: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow
Prof. Emanuel Peled, Emeritus Professor, School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University
The Solid-Electrolyte-Interphase (SEI) model for nonaqueous alkali-metal batteries constitutes a paradigm change in the understanding of lithium batteries and has thus enabled the development of safer, durable, higher-power and lower-cost lithium batteries for portable and EV applications. Prior to the publication of the SEI model (1979), researchers used the Butler-Volmer equation, in which a direct electron transfer from the electrode to lithium cations in the solution is assumed. The SEI model proved that this is a mistaken concept and that, in practice, the transfer of electrons from the electrode to the solution in a lithium battery, must be prevented. It provides new equations for: electrode kinetics (io and b), anode corrosion, SEI resistivity and growth and irreversible capacity loss of lithium ion batteries. This presentation will discuss the necessity, the properties, the degradation, the growth rate and the potential improvements of the SEI for several types of anodes.
These issues include:
  • Is it possible to develop a SEI free lithium metal or lithium ion anode?
  • What are the differences between the SEI and a common redox electrode?
  • What parameters affect the SEI composition, properties, ageing phenomena and safety related issues?
  • What are the reasons for lithium dendrite formation on charge?
  • Can we eliminate or reduce the lithium dendrite formation problem?
  • Does SEI growth limits the cycle life of silicon nano particle and silicon nano wires anodes?
  • Efforts to develop an improved SEI and an artificial SEI on lithium, graphite and silicon.
8:55-9:15Electrolyte Additive Decomposition and Anodic Stability of Conductive Carbons in Lithium-Ion Batteries Examined by On-Line Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry (OEMS)
Dr. Hubert Gasteiger, Chair, Technical Electrochemistry, Technical University of Munich
Increasing cycle-life and energy density of lithium ion batteries requires the development of improved electrolyte additives and a detailed understanding of the stability of electrolyte and cathode electrode components, particularly at high anodic potentials. A useful tool to examine fundamental decomposition/degradation mechanisms is on-line electrochemical mass spectrometry (OEMS). In this presentation, we will discuss the following aspects:
  • Anodic and cathodic decomposition mechanisms of commonly used additives and co-solvents
  • Quantification of the anodic stability of conductive carbons and of conductive carbon coatings at potentials relevant for high-voltage cathode materials
  • Effect of water impurities on carbon oxidation rates and on electrolyte stability
9:15-9:35Tailoring of Material Morphology for Improving the Electrochemical Performance of Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Jie Li, Group leader, MEET Battery Research Center, Muenster University
Particle morphologies of active materials, including shape, size, type of agglomeration and surface properties, play an important role in the electrochemical battery performance. We have devolved several morphologies for various cathode materials by choosing different synthesis approaches and controlling the synthesis conditions. In this presentation, we will address two different materials as illustrative examples, i.e. the Li-rich layered material and the Li-Ni-Mn-O high-voltage spinel material.
Li-rich layered material:
  • How to prepare hollow spherical and 3D porous Li-rich layered materials?
  • How to decrease the extent of agglomeration of the secondary particles?
  • How does the morphology affect the electrochemical performance, in cycling stability, rate capability and voltage decay?
Li-Ni-Mn-O high-voltage spinel material:
  • Is it necessary to go for nano for LNMO material?
  • Are {100} surfaces positive for the stability of LNMO material?
  • Is the LNMO material compatible with elevated temperature applications?
  • Is it possible to get power capability and cycle life simultaneously?
9:35-9:55Novel Li-Ion Battery Electrolyte Materials: What Can We Envisage for the Future?
Dr. Patrick Johansson, Professor, Chalmers University
Novel electrolyte materials is the basic starting point to attack the practical disadvantages that we often face at the cell level – safety, degradation, life-length, cost, etc. Fundamentally, a modern functional Li-ion battery electrolyte needs to provide a large set of properties, including:
  • A large amount of highly mobile charge carriers
  • Chemical and electrochemical stability incl. electrode compatibility
  • Safety – low flammability, non-toxicity, etc.
In this presentation a bottom-up academic research based approach will be used moving from predictive computational approaches via proper physical characterisation of model systems up to monitoring resulting safety properties of the electrolytes. Topics covered in more detail include:
  • Design of novel anions to replace PF6-, including fluorine-free anions
  • Methodologies for fast screening of electrolyte material properties
  • Methodologies for assessing the origin of degradation reactions in detail
Finally a summary of various current trends for Li-ion battery electrolytes is made with a perspective of not only high-lighting large promises, but also the obstacles remaining and how the topics above might be useful as problem solvers.
10:10-11:00Grand Opening Coffee Break with Exhibit & Poster Viewing
   Session 2: Lithium-Ion Industrial R&D
In this session, materials and electrode-processing vendors will discuss advances in active and inactive materials and electrode-manufacturing technology.
11:00-11:05Chairperson’s Opening Remarks
Prof. Martin Winter, Chair, Applied Materials Science for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion, Institute of Physical Chemistry (IPC) - Founding Scientific Director, MEET Battery Research Center, WWU Münster - Founding Director, Helmholtz Institute “Ionics in Energy Storage”
11:05-11:25Designing Cathode Materials for Next Generation Electric Vehicles
Dr. Christoph Erk, Research Scientist, Lithium-ion Batteries Cathode Materials, BASF
11:25-11:45Present and Future Development of Battery Materials at FMC
Marina Yakovleva, Commercial Manager, New Product and Technology Development, FMC Corporation
FMC is one of the world’s leading suppliers of high value Lithium products and is a leading supplier to the Electric Storage market.  FMC’s products have been used by the Li-ion industry since its inception. FMC continues its focus on customer applications and emerging technologies through its R&D efforts in developing new products and technologies that can meet the demand for higher energy density systems. The company is well recognized in industry for its past innovation of the advanced cathode materials  and its revolutionary SLMP® Technology that paves the way to enhancing energy density of the Li-ion batteries and enables the beyond Li-ion applications, such as lithium metal batteries and lithium ion capacitors. This presentation will review:
  • FMC’s outlook on the rechargeable Li-ion market from the supplier prospective
  • The role of lithium precursors in the development of the advanced cathode materials
  • Opportunities for the advancements of the Li-ion and beyond Li-ion systems
11:45-12:05Modeling Lithium-Ion Battery Costs and sMaterial Demand
Dr. Julia Attwood, Analyst, Energy Smart Technologies, Bloomberg New Energy Finance
Electric vehicle and stationary energy storage markets are expected to grow dramatically in the next decade, driving demand for batteries. Using a proprietary battery cost model, we identify the key active materials in current lithium-ion technologies and forecast future costs and demand. We then examine how a growing market will affect production costs, and present selected disruptive technologies that have the potential to significantly reduce costs and material use, changing the landscape of the battery industry.
12:05-12:25Evaluation of Materials and Concepts for Future Automotive xEV Batteries
Dr. Peter Lamp, Head, Research Battery Technology, BMW Group
New mobility concepts are required to balance the individual need for mobility and the sustainable utilization of natural resources as well as the protection of the environment. Technology improvements are necessary that allow the transition towards mobility concepts based on renewable energies. Today the electrification of drive trains, ranging from hybrid vehicles to plug-in hybrids, and finally to pure electric vehicles, is the commonly accepted next step in this direction. BMW is strongly committed to this path. The electric energy storage is the key technology for electrification. Energy and/or power density of the storage system define the fuel reduction potential as well as the customer acceptance. In the last decades, the introduction of electric vehicles failed due to the lack of a suitable electric energy storage technology able to fulfill the automotive requirements. The introduction of Li-ion technology in the consumer market re-stimulated the development of electrified vehicles. To make it a success story, care has to be taken to fulfill the present and future customer expectations, in particular with regard to safety and reliability, performance and costs. One of the major factors for a high market penetration of electric vehicles is the ratio between driving range and costs. More than 90% of the world wide vehicle market falls in the price range below 50.000$; on the other hand, a driving range above 400 km is needed. That requires energy density targets above 250 Wh/kg or 400 Wh/l for a battery pack, with costs as low as 150 $/kWh. Different strategies are nowadays considered which enable a considerable increase in the electric range. These include the optimization of cell and electrode design, the introduction of novel cathode and anode materials for Li-ion cells, as well as the shift to alternative Post-Lithium-Ion technologies. Nevertheless, the impact of all these new approaches on lifetime and ageing still represents a critical issue. Considerable improvements must be obtained in this respect before a possible industrialization of the new generations of batteries for automotive application can be envisaged. This presentation will outline general design and subsequent development strategies from a car manufacturer point of view. In particular it will address open issues to be solved in the future development of electric energy storage technologies for automotive applications.
12:40-13:55Networking LUNCH
13:55-14:40Dessert Break with Exhibit & Poster Viewing
   Session 3: Beyond Lithium Ion
In this session, we will explore prospects and challenges for futuristic rechargeable-battery chemistries, which are theoretically capable of providing higher energy densities and/or lower cost than Lithium-Ion chemistries.
14:40 -14:45Chairperson’s Opening Remarks
Klaus Brandt, Independent Consultant
14:45-15:05Overview of Rechargeable Li Batteries Before LIB
Dr. Klaus Brandt, Independent Consultant
Before Li-Ion batteries were commercialized in 1990, a significant effort was directed towards rechargeable Li Batteries with Li-metal anodes, culminating in the use of a significant number of Li-MoS2 batteries in laptops and cell phones in the late 1980ties. A variety of cathode chemistries were investigated, including transition metal sulfides like TiS2 and MoS2 and oxides like V2O5 and MnO2. In addition to liquid organic electrolytes, solid PEO-based polymer electrolytes were proposed, however, were not used due to their low room temperature conductivity. The limitation for the cycle life of these cells was the Li metal anode and its propensity to form dendritic deposits on charging, which not only shortened life but also posed a safety problem through the formation of internal shorts. However, through a number of measures at the cell level, a life of several hundred cycles was achieved. As an alternative to the Li-metal anode/liquid electrolyte system, Li-metal/solid electrolyte and Li-alloy/liquid electrolyte systems were investigated. Some of these technologies were used in rechargeable coin cells. As Li-metal anodes are again a research topic due to their high theoretical capacity per volume and especially per weight, we will discuss the measures taken in the past to improve the morphology of the cycled Li-anode deposit and with it cycle life in some detail. We will also show some recent work on this topic.
15:05-15:25"Solidifying” Batteries – Solid Electrolytes in Lithium (Ion) Batteries
Prof. Jürgen Janek, Director, Materials Research Laboratory (LaMa), Scientific Director, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen & BELLA, Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Solid electrolytes and solid state batteries are currently attracting serious interest as potential future components and storage devices. Solid electrolytes (polymer, ceramic or composites) are required to construct protected lithium anodes – in case that lithium metal anodes will become again part of lithium batteries. If the cathode is still employed in contact with a liquid electrolyte, a new interface between a liquid and a solid electrolyte forms which can be highly resistive. Solid state batteries without any liquid electrolytes are considered as ultimately stable and safe devices, but are expected to suffer from poor kinetics and high costs. The lecture will include answers to the following questions:
  • Are solid electrolytes necessarily worse lithium ion conductors than liquid electrolytes?
  • Are solid electrolytes the key to ultimately long-term stable batteries?
  • What do we know about the interface between liquid and solid electrolytes?
  • What is the state of the art thin film battery?
  • How to construct “thick film” solid state batteries?
  • Important research tasks in the development of solid state batteries?
15:25-15:45Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries – Craze or Opportunity?
Prof. Philipp Adelhelm, Professor, Institute for Technical Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Center for Energy and Environmental Chemistry (CEEC), Jena University
Battery research is currently characterized by intense efforts to improve lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). On the other hand, batteries based on other elements are being studied as potential alternatives. The abundance of sodium is the main driving force to study sodium-based batteries with the aim of obtaining low-cost battery cell concepts and/or to overcome challenges known from next-generation lithium-ion systems such as lithium-air or lithium-sulfur. This presentation will summarize and discuss different aspects of sodium batteries.
  • What is the present status of sodium-ion batteries (NIBs)?
  • Can lithium be simply replaced by sodium in battery concepts?
  • What happens when replacing lithium by sodium?
  • Do sodium batteries work better or worse than lithium batteries?
  • Can sodium batteries be cheaper than lithium batteries?
15:45-16:05Development of Full Cell Chemistries for Magnesium Batteries
Dr. Anthony Burrell, Department Head, Electrochemical Energy Storage, Argonne National Laboratory
The continued development of high energy density, rechargeable batteries is an important area of need for the future advancement of energy storage systems. Although lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are widely used for energy storage in many consumer electronic applications, issues associated with manufacturing a cost-competitive battery of sufficient energy density have slowed their development for large volume application such as electric vehicles or large scale stationary applications. While advantages of Mg batteries have been recognized for a long time, research is still at a very early stage, with many challenges ahead. Even though the Grignard or halogen-containing electrolyte systems works well with a Mg metal anode, at least in terms of cycling efficiency, and are compatible with a Chevrel phase cathode (1.1 V vs Mg), major issues exist in extending this to other cathodes. The development of electrolytes that have better overall performance is a major issue in advancing the science of a full Mg cell. Coupled with this is the need for a high voltage, high capacity cathode material. The complication of simultaneous electrolyte development coupled with cathode discovery have limited the overall progress. In this presentation we will discuss the concurrent discovery of an electrolyte system based upon Mg(TFSI)2 and its role in the development of a clear understanding of Mg intercalation chemistry in metal oxide hosts. A specific example orthorhombic V2O5 cathode (2.56 V vs. Mg) has complex intercalation behavior and serves has an excellent example of the path toward the high voltage Mg battery.
16:05-16:25Zinc-Air: The Oldest Innovative Battery
Prof. Hajime Arai, Professor, Office of Society-Academia Collaboration for Innovation, Kyoto University
Zinc-Air batteries have been important candidates as power sources for electric vehicles for more than 40 years, and are still attractive as innovative “beyond Li-ion” batteries. The advantages include their high volumetric energy density (capable of 500 km driving per charge), high safety (as aqueous system) and low cost, whereas they generally suffer from limited lifetime and low efficiency. This presentation will discuss the following key issues:
  • Comparison with Li/Air
  • Electrical rechargeable or mechanical rechargeable
  • Suppression of zinc dendrite formation and shape changes
  • Trials to improve the activity and stability of air electrodes
  • Auxiliaries to control air supply and cells
  • Further challenges
16:45-17:45postersJohnson ControlsNetworking Reception with Exhibit & Poster Viewing