Advanced Automotive Battery Technology, Application and Market
Wednesday, February 8 to Friday February 10, 2012
AABC 2012. AABTAM Symposium: Advanced Automotive Battery Technology, Application and Market - Session 2
Batteries for Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Lithium Ion has recently been introduced into small-volume hybrid-vehicle offerings, yet all high-volume producers are still offering their vehicles with NiMH batteries. How fast will Lithium-Ion penetrate the market and which cell and pack design will provide the best cost-performance trade-off and still guarantee reliability and safety? These crucial issues will be addressed in this session by major automakers as well as Li-Ion developers.
Ted J. Miller, Senior Manager of Energy Storage Strategy and Research
Dr. Ted Miller’s team is responsible for energy-storage strategy, research, development, and worldwide implementation of hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles. Mr. Miller is a member and Chairman of the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) Management Committee and past Chairman of the USABC Technical Advisory Committee. He is the principle investigator for Ford/University Research Alliance energy storage research programs at MIT and the University of Michigan.
- We Don’t Want a Box of Chocolates
Ted Miller, Senior Manager, Energy Storage Strategy & Research, Ford Motor Company
Vehicle electrification is a key tool in improving fuel economy via increased powertrain efficiency and energy capture. Electrification also always for energy usage optimization by shifting some loads away from the 12V bus to a high voltage bus. Central to vehicle electrification, and the acknowledged enabling technology, is energy storage. At present, and even within the coming decades, it is evident that the dominant electrified vehicle choice will be the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). Therefore, the discussion will first consider the vehicle electrification options. Then the production HEV and its specific benefits and market attraction will be considered. Field data of production nickel/metal-hydride (NiMH) HEV batteries will be reviewed and the reliability assessed. This will provide a benchmark against which lithium ion (Li-Ion) HEV batteries evaluated. Some of the key benefits of Li-Ion battery implementation in an HEV will be considered. Finally, Li-Ion battery abuse tolerance will be discussed as a critical topic going forward. Two key battery abuse scenarios, overcharge and crush, will be assessed. A discussion of development of the potential analytic tools to assess battery abuse response will conclude the talk.
Key topics to be covered include:
- Vehicle electrification outlook
- HEV technology benefits
- Battery field test data
- Reliability assessment
- Benefits of Li-Ion HEV batteries
- Battery abuse performance
- 48V Technology for “Mild Hybrid” Applications
Andre Radon, Technical Development – Energysystems/ Energybalance, Audi AG
Continuously increasing electrical power demand in conventional cars—mainly driven by the increased electrification as a mean to reduce CO2
emission and fuel consumption—is driving the current 12 V power supply to its limits. The vehicle manufacturers Audi, BMW, Daimler, Porsche and
Volkswagen identified this subject at an early stage and prepared a first
specification of the second vehicle voltage range 48 V – the LV148.
This paper is primarily concerned with the following topics:
- motivation for a 48 V power supply
- LV148 – basic conditions and background for the voltage range
- LV148 – conceptual approach for tests and test conditions for components applied in this voltage range
- feasible configurations of the vehicle power supply system
Supplier Specification LV148 – abstract of voltage range
- Next Generation GM BAS, eAssist, Hybrid Li-Ion Battery System
Ronn Jamieson, Director, Gobal Battery Systems Engineering, General Motors
The first generation Belt Alternator Starter (BAS) system employed a 36V NiMH Battery Pack. As gasoline engines continued to improve in efficiency resulting in increased fuel economy, realizing an acceptable incremental increase in fuel economy from an alternative propulsion (hybrid) system became more challenging. The key requirements for the next generation BAS hybrid, eAssist, system were greater fuel economy, increased electric boost, lower system cost and compatibility with a wide range of existing powertrains. The resultant eAssist system would deliver approximately three times the peak electric boost and regenerative braking capability of the 36V BAS system. In order to provide the required power, 115V system voltage was required. The resultant developed eAssist battery pack using LiIon batteries had decreased mass, decreased package size, decreased cost/kWh and about 50% increase in charge power.
- Introduction/GM Vehicle Electrification Strategy
- First generation BAS Battery Pack overview
- Requirements of the eAssist Battery Pack
- Performance of the eAssist Battery Pack
- Li-Ion-battery for BMW Active Hybrid 5
Peter Lamp, Manager Cell Technology, BMW AG
The Active Hybrid 5 is the third hybrid electric vehicle of BMW which is in series production and available on the market. In contrast to the predecessors Active Hybrid X6 and Active Hybrid 7 it is the first BMW hybrid vehicle where the battery system was completely developed and produced within BMW.
This presentation outlines the characteristics of the vehicle and in particular the battery system. It also highlights some challenges and their appropriate solutions.
- The BMW vision is to combine pure driving pleasure with high energy efficiency. The drive system achieving this target is as follows:
- Powerful drive train with 6-cylinder Otto engine (225kW, 400Nm) supported by a electric synchronous motor with (40 kW, 210 Nm)
- High driving performance (0 to 100 km/h in 5,9 s) combined with low fuel consumption (< 7 l/100km)
- Full hybrid with 3-4 km electric range (max. electric speed of 60 km/h)
- The battery system perfectly matches the vehicle requirements as well as automotive safety and lifetime standards. The quality is assured by the BMW internal development and production. Main characteristics of the battery are:
- 96 cells using Lithium iron phosphate as cathode material
- Battery system voltage of 317 V
- Usable energy of about 0,6 kWh
- High power performance of 43 kW
- Effective cooling system with direct refrigerant cooling
- Sophisticated battery management system
- High level and proven safety architecture
- The project also showed that the close interaction between vehicle, drive train and battery system can be ideally handled by an 'in-house' development due to reduced interfaces and thus fast response time.
BMW consequently extends this strategy to all electrification projects using furthermore improved and standardized module and battery concepts.
- Progress of SB LiMotive Automotive Battery Technology
Kiho Kim, Vice President, Research & Development Team, SB LiMotive Co., Ltd.
SB Limotive is developing various kinds of cells with different size & capacity for HEV, PHEV & EV applications. For HEV, 5Ah class cells are under development and for PHEV and EV applications, SBLiMotive is developing the cell's capacity from 20Ah to 60 Ah. For automotive applications, Li ion cells should have good rate capability, high power, good cycle & calendar life characteristics and safety at various temperatures, time intervals, current ranges and so on.
In the presentation, I will explain the capacity, power, resistance, life and safety characteristics of SBLiMotive cells under various test conditions.
- Advancing Technologies for Changing Requirements; Opportunities in Lithium-Ion Hybrid Battery Packs
Tom Watson, Vice President of Technology, Johnson Controls Power Solutions
The battery system in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle provides value that is inherent to fuel economy improvement. . Before Hybrid Electric Vehicles will be considered for mass adoption, advancements will need to be made as it relates to cost reduction and/or increased functionality. These advancements will include an exploration of thewhite spaces of vehicle electrification. The presentation will cover:
- Spectrum of electrification of vehicles
- Hybrid functions migrating to lower electrical power systems
- Viable technologies to satisfy the energy storage needs