In this session, we will explore prospects and challenges for futuristic rechargeable-battery chemistries, which are theoretically capable of providing higher energy densities and/or lower cost than Lithium-Ion chemistries.
Session Chairman: Martin Winter, Chair, Applied Material Science for Energy Conversion and Storage, MEET Battery Research Center, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Muenster
Prof. Martin Winter is the scientific director of the MEET Battery Research Center at Muenster University. MEET stands for Münster Electrochemical Energy Technology and the director of the Helmholtz Institute Muenster (HI MS) “Ionics in Energy Storage”. Prof. Winter has been the spokesperson of the Innovation Alliance LIB 2015 of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Today he is an associate of the National Platform E-Mobility (NPE) and he is the head of the research council of the Battery Forum Germany. For his scientific achievements Martin Winter has been awarded amongst others with the Battery Technology Award of the Electrochemical Society and the Research Award as well as the Technology Award of the International Battery Materials Association and as Fellow of The Electrochemical Society.
Li Metal Anodes, the Lesser Evil in Lithium/Sulfur and Lithium/Air Batteries? Martin Winter, Chair, Applied Material Science for Energy Conversion and Storage, MEET Battery Research Center, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Muenster
Despite debatable values for practical specific energy (Wh/kg) and in particular energy density (Wh/L), lithium/oxygen (air) and lithium/sulfur cells are considered as next generation battery chemistries. “Next generation” basically means that the Li metal cells are considered as replacement of the lithium ion system neglecting the limited dynamics of the both the Li metal anode as well as the sulfur and air cathodes.
Reversibility and thus recharge-ability of the sulfur or air cathode are in the focus of most research activities, neglecting the still questionable recharge-ability (and associated safety problems) of the Li metal electrode. In general, the Li metal electrode is considered to be the lesser evil in these systems.
In this presentation, selected fundamental investigations on the recharge-ability of the Li metal electrode will be presented. Specific attention will be devoted to surface modification and surface area and its impact on overpotentials as well as on cycling stability.
Overview of Li Sulfur Battery Development Steve Visco, Chief Executive Officer and Chief Technology Officer, PolyPlus Battery Company
Interest in lithium-sulfur batteries is largely motivated by the exceptionally low cost and high capacity density of sulfur (1600 mAh/g). However, the long timeline for commercialization lithium-sulfur batteries seems to be at odds with the large number of claims of major breakthroughs in Li-S chemistry. In this presentation, we highlight the key issues with rechargeable Li-S batteries, the state-of-the-art, and the path to realization of a long sought after goal, including long cycle life lithium metal electrodes.
Recent Progress in Li-S and Related Battery Chemistry Jun Liu, Director, Energy Processes and Materials, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Li-ion batteries are finding wide applications in consumer products and are attractive for electrical vehicle applications. There have also been intensive efforts for materials and systems with much high energy densities (beyond Li-ions). This presentation will discuss recent progress in Li-S, and other related battery chemistry. In Li-S batteries, understanding and controlling the solubility and reaction species of the polysufides play an important role. In traditional battery design, the dissolution of polysulfides cause capacity fading, but this process is affected by many side reactions that can be monitored using in-situ characterization techniques. To achieve high energy density, high S loading and low electrolyte amount are critical. Solving this problem requires optimization of the electrode materials composition, architectures and electrolyte properties that have not been explored in the literature based on low S loading and abundant electrolytes. An alternate cell design is a redox flow battery that uses dissolved polysulfides as the active materials. However, it is important to fine tune the properties of the electrolytes and additives in order to increase the solubility of the short chain lithium sulfides and prevent precipitation.
Development of Sodium Ion Batteries Shinichi Komaba, Professor, Tokyo University
On the basis of the three-decade history of Li-ion technology, our research group has made efforts to study sodium insertion since 2005. In 2010, we have succeeded in demonstrating the high performance Na-ion batteries by the development of sodium insertion positive and negative electrodes and electrolyte materials. Calculated energy density (Wh/kg) of the Na-ion batteries of hard-carbon//NaNi1/2Mn1/2O2 is about 60-70 % of the conventional Li-ion one, graphite//LiCoO2. Our present motivation is to achieve highly energetic Na-ion batteries of which energy density is comparable to that of the Li-ion, preferably, all materials of the Na-ion batteries are made from affordable and abundant materials. We already develop efficient combinations of insertion materials for positive and negative electrodes which are successful to demonstrate high energy density similar to graphite//LiMn2O4 Li ion cell. Our recent achievement and progress in the research area will be overviewed and we will discuss the future possibility of Na-ion batteries. These issues include:
Motivation toward Na-ion from Li-ion
What are the limitations of Na-ion?
Recent progress of electrode active materials
Recent progress of binder and electrolyte chemistry
What are the practical limitations to Na-ion?
Is Na-ion beyond / below / beside Li-ion ?
Development of Solid Electrolytes for High-Energy-Density Batteries Nancy Dudney, Material Science and Technology, Oak Ridge National Lab
Solid electrolytes have, in many cases, exceptional electrochemical stability and ionic conductivity that should provide a route to safer, longer lived, and higher voltage batteries. Yet examples of functional solid state batteries that can be scaled to automotive application are rare. This talk will review the operational and processing challenges for incorporating solid electrolytes in batteries, highlighting some of the new materials and approaches. Specific attention will be devoted to the use of multiple electrolytes in a composite or sequential layered structure and our understanding of the interface between two different electrolytes. The immediate challenge for solid electrolytes is stabilization of a practical lithium anode.
Status and Trajectory of Automotive Fuel Cell Technology Mark Mathias, Director, Fuel Cell R&D, General Motors
Fuel cell technology is now available that achieves performance and durability requirements for vehicle application, thus allowing market introduction. Likewise, H2 distribution technology is available to safely and quickly refuel these vehicles, providing the functionality customers have come to expect from fossil-fuel-powered vehicles. The challenge is now in the realm of economics – providing vehicles and hydrogen at a price that customers are willing to pay. In this talk, I will focus on:
…the motivation for electrifying the vehicle using a fuel cell as compared to the use of a Li-ion battery that is now commonplace in the market.
…the technical accomplishments by fuel cell developers that have enabled the recent market introduction of fuel cell vehicles.
…the remaining key fuel cell vehicle cost-reduction challenges, putting them in terms of critical science/engineering problems and system development targets.
The specific technology focus for this talk will be almost exclusively proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells, but I will also briefly discuss alkaline-membrane technology that is at an earlier stage of development.