Lithium ion is the predominant battery technology to power the emerging plug-in hybrids and all-electric vehicles. Cell chemistry and mechanical design vary among developers as they try to balance safety, durability, performance, and cost to improve the value proposition of the technology. In this session, battery developers presented design and performance data from their recent and upcoming EV and PHEV offerings and discussed the chosen designs.
Arnold Lamm, Head, High Voltage Battery Systems, Daimler AG
Dr. Lamm studied mechanical and chemical engineering at the Rhine-Westphalia Technical University (RWTH), Aachen. He obtained his PhD from the Jülich GmbH research center, and joined Daimler AG (former Daimler-Ben) in1995. Since then he has worked in different positions as senior manager for “Fuel Cell Stack and System Technology”, “Energy Storages” (Hydrogen tank, High-Voltage-Batteries) and “Fuel Cell Drivetrain”. In April 2009 Dr. Lamm became member of the board of German ACCUmotive at Nabern, and has been responsible for the development of Li-Ion batteries (Hybrid, EV, Plug-in). In December 2010 Dr. Lamm took over a new department at Daimler AG: “Characterization of HV Battery Systems“. He is member of the AG2 in the National Platform Electro Mobility in Germany.
HV-Battery on its Way to Becoming a Commodity Juergen Duda, Project Manager for HV Batteries in the Pre-Development Phase, Daimler AG
Daimler´s green strategy based on fuel cell technology and xEVs (Hybrid, Plug-in and electric vehicles). The S400 HYBRID was the first car with a Li-Ion-battery introduced in 2009, followed by the E-Class HYBRID in 2013 and new C-Class HYBRID in 2014. The smart electric drive had his market entry in 2012. All batteries are produced by Deutsche ACCumotive GmbH, a 100% subsidiary of Daimler. Actual Mercedes-Benz is introducing the S500 PlugIn-Hybrid with the worldwide lowest CO2-emissions in its class with just 69g/km.
After the first generation of xEV-HV-batteries it becomes more and more important to reach a higher maturity level of future HV-battery-technology by standardizing more parts within the battery. Daimler’s approach is to define module levels for certain sub-components of the battery system and unify as many parts as possible between the different xEV-applications. This standardization shall be the basis to create a commodity for cost-intensive parts to achieve a further cost decrease in the future. This approach is also useful to reach a better economy of scale amongst different OEMs.
This presentation will show new opportunities on standardization/unitization and describe the module levels of the battery system as following:
Cell modules: The interfaces and connectors of the cell module shall be unitized amongst the battery systems, like the position and format of the mechanical connection between module and system-housing or the position of the HV- and LV-connectors. The dimensions of the cell modules should be unified for Plug-In- and EV-applications. The application of the cell chemistry will be optimized according to the need of the individual project. Other parts within the module like the parallel-connection, the design of the bus bars and HV-connectors will be adjusted according to the application boundaries.
Electric/electronics-components: All hardware-components on the HV-side with e.g. shunts, contactors and fuses will be tied amongst EV- and PlugIn-applications. A common structure and connection is the target for this separate E/E-structure to generate a unified installation space in the battery system
Battery-management-controller: The LV-components on the cell module will have a common interface and will be bundled to a common interface to the BMS. This common interface is based on a modular structure of the BMS which is able to handle the functionalities for PlugIn and EV-applications.
The presentation will end with a summary about the possibilities and potentials of a further standardization of HV-batteries for future applications.
The High-Voltage Battery of the BMW Plug-in Hybrid X5 e-Drive Frank Moebius, Head of R&D High-Voltage Battery, BMW
After the successful launch of the all-electric BMW i3 in 2013 and the plug-in hybrid BMW i8 in 2014, the BMW plug-in hybrid X5 eDrive will follow in 2015. This will be the first Sports Activity Vehicle which combines the intelligent all-wheel drive system BMW xDrive with an innovative BMW Plug-in hybrid system.
The drive train consists of a four-cylinder gasoline engine with TwinPower Turbo technology and an electric motor integrated into the gearbox. The power electronics are based on the modular concept first seen in the BMW i3. The electrical energy is provided by a powerful and highly compact lithium-ion high voltage storage system.
The high voltage battery for the Plug-In Hybrid BMW X5 eDrive is developed and produced in-house and consequently follows the PHEV modular approach. For the first time this type of battery goes in series in a car of the BMW core brand and therefore is a forerunner for future PHEV vehicles of the BMW Group.
This presentation addresses the following topics:
The vehicle BMW X5 eDrive
The electric drive train of the vehicle
The high voltage battery and its specific characteristics
Special features of the battery production
Outlook on further applications of the modular kit of high voltage storage at BMW
Advances in High-Energy Density Lithium-ion Polymer Battery for PHEV & EV Seungdon Choi, Head of PHEV Cell Development, Adv. Automotive Battery Development Center, LG Chem
Among xEV’s (HEV, PHEV & EV), major portion of demand has been on HEV so far, even with many efforts by battery & car industries. However, it is predicted that future xEV market growth will be led by PHEV and EV demand. This growth will be realized by several factors like improved battery technology, stronger vehicle performance, better infrastructure and so on. This presentation will cover especially on the recent improvement of high energy battery technology which is one of major enabling technologies for future PHEV & EV market
Introduction of LG Chem’s Automotive Battery Business
Product line-up for xEV under mass production
Mass production history
High energy battery development for future PHEV & EV
Important performance factors for future PHEV & EV
Development status of LG Chem’s high energy battery
Engineering Roadmap for PHEV Battery Packs Peter Pichler, Product Manager, Electrical Storage Systems, MAGNA
Increasing vehicle requirements for pure electrical range as a mean to reduce CO2 emission and fuel consumption but also aggressive cost targets to enable high volume applications is driving current Li-Ion PHEV battery pack applications to its limits. As a consequence for next PHEV battery pack generations new technologies and solutions have to be introduced.
Based on present designs the presentation will outline future concepts and technologies for system architecture, mechanical design, battery management and cooling for Li-Ion PHEV battery packs to achieve the future demands.
PHEV and EV Battery Technology and Market Menahem Andeman, President, Advanced Automotive Batteries
First-generation EV and PHEV batteries are powering MY2010 to 2015 PHEVs and EVs. No less than 12 battery packs developed by 10 battery companies and including 5 distinct cathode formulations are installed in cars that are made by major automakers and on the roads today. Second-generation packs will start to appear in 2016 vehicles. While multiple cell sizes (3 to 95 Ah) and shapes (cylindrical, prismatic, and pouch) continue to be used, there appears to be a trend toward using a high nickel NMC cathode composition against graphite anode. In this presentation, we will discuss:
Battery technology in current EVs and PHEVs
Battery technology expected in the 2016-2017 EVs and PHEVs
Cost-performance prospects to 2020 and beyond
Battery market forecast by producer
The Tesla Model S Battery: A Pack Analysis Study Volker Hennige, Manager, Global Battery Competence Team, AVL List GmbH
The launch of Tesla’s model S changed the world of electromobility and consumer acceptance. Now, full battery electric vehicles are possible with a much wider range and for more attractive prices. Since the battery is the cost and performance driver, a closer look is helpful to fully understand the success of Tesla but also identify some existing risks if not managed carefully. In the presentation we will give an overview about the following topics:
Key battery performance characteristics based on vehicle data as well as battery and cell level tests
Analysis of battery cooling system and interaction with the vehicle
Assessment of mechanical and electrical structure of the battery based on tear down or detail analysis of the battery and a high level bill of material
Review of patents
Assessment of weight, quality, safety, and total battery cost