Session 4 reviewed EC module design and system engineering, including those related to transportation, to industrial energy conservation, and to the utility grid.
Michael Meinert, Head of R&D-group Energy Storage Systems, Mobility Division, Siemens AG
Dr. Michael Meinert graduated in electrical engineering, Electrical Railway Systems, from Dresden University of Technology, Germany in 1995 and received his doctorate in electrical engineering from Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany in 2007. His employment experience included the Siemens AG, Erlangen since 1995 in the field of Rolling Stock and Railway Power Supply as well as the Darmstadt University of Technology from 2001 to 2004. He is currently the Head of the R&D-group for energy storage units/systems as well as overhead contact line free systems at the Siemens AG, Infrastructure & Cities Sector. His special experience include railway systems, High Temperature Superconductivity and innovative energy systems.
Quo Vadis DLC? Michael Meinert, Head of R&D-group Energy Storage Systems, Mobility Division, Siemens AG
During the last decades Double-Layer Capacitor (DLC) got mature enough to be used in several industrial applications. The experiences by prototyping and small series were the basis for “lessons learnt” of the cell manufactures as well as the industrial partners. Quality issues could be solved and performances were improved. But the usage only for energy-efficient products or solutions is crucial due to the long-lasting return on invest for the customers. Such products were introduced into the market in several cases supported by funding. But on the other hand and if new functionalities can be implemented only realized by DLC the market penetration is obvious.
Nevertheless further progress of cell’s performance to increase the energy as well as the power density on one hand and the reduction of costs is mandatory to be successful for the next decades. Other energy storage technologies are evolving quite fast compared to DLC’s and plays a more and more competitive role for power-related applications. Sensitivity analysis based on different parameters can be used to identify the necessary development aim for DLC.
The presentation will focus on some mentioned issues above and will close with a prospective view.
Starting Commercial Diesel Engines with Ultracapacitors Jeremy Cowperthwaite, VP Engineering, Maxwell Technologies
The principle objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability and suitability of ultracapacitors for starting commercial diesel engines. The development of the ultracapacitor began over 20 years ago but only recently has the technology begun to see widespread acceptance. Ultracapacitor technology has been applied to engine starting since the late 1990’s with limited success. Today’s offerings are a considerable improvement in both cost and efficacy.
Starting a diesel engine is challenging: The compression ratio is very high (up to 20:1), the displacement is large (compared to an automobile), and in cold weather, the starting power required is very high. Since the widespread acceptance and deployment of the diesel engine in 1923, all cranking and starting power has been provided by lead-acid batteries – a technology invented in 1859 with little change since then. During recent years, the demands placed on the diesel vehicle’s SLI (starting/lighting/ignition) battery have increased dramatically: The extensive adoption of vehicle accessories in the way of lighting, lift-gates, radios, sound systems, telematics, and computers created an increase in the need for energy from the same battery. The rise in popularity of sleepers on long-haul trucks dramatically exacerbated the problem with the addition of televisions, electric blankets, blenders, microwave ovens, coffee makers, and CPAP machines. The combination of power and energy requirements place different and conflicting demands on the battery. The ideal solution is really two different battery designs: A starting battery design for engine cranking, and a deep-cycle battery design for on-board energy demands from accessories. The increasing need for energy (particularly in trucks with sleepers and/or lift-gates) began requiring more power than the resident general purpose batteries could provide, resulting in stranded trucks due to drained batteries. The problem is made more severe by cold weather because diesel engines require more cranking current as temperature drops; while at the same time batteries temporarily lose cranking power in the cold.
Ultracapacitor technology has proven itself as the source of starting and cranking power. Because of the ultracapacitor has extraordinarily low internal resistance (ESR) it can source a great deal of power (up to 10,000 amps) very quickly – perfect for starting diesel engines. Energy of an ultracapacitor starting system is very limited, however. This is where the batteries are still needed to power accessory the accessory loads mentioned earlier. It is now possible to have ultracapacitors as the only, dedicated source of cranking and starting power for diesel engine applications.
Ultracapacitor technology has now advanced to the point where it can be packaged in industry standard battery sizes with internal electronics that allow the voltage to rise when temperatures cold. The presence of a microprocessor in unit allows flexibility of control and communications with vehicle communication and monitoring systems. This paper will present technical detail regarding the application of ultracapacitors to start commercial diesel engines.
Value Proposition of Ultracapacitors in Automotive Applications Chad Hall, Co-Founder, VP of Marketing & Product Management, Ioxus
All of the components, devices and connectivity embedded into our cars are for nothing if the energy needed to power them is lacking or non-existent. The automotive market is beginning to understand that all of these electrical components are too much for batteries alone to sustain the long cycle life needed. When paired with batteries, ultracapacitors expand the vehicles charge and discharge capabilities into shorter response times and offer the most reliable and strongest ROI of any ESS available today. This session will focus on crossing silos by implementing ultracapacitors in various points of power for automobiles. This will include a look at the full cycle of an automobile engine including starting, eboosting, peak shaving (power steering), and Boardnet stabilization.
Supercapacitor Technology: Targets and Limits Yurii Maletin, Chief Scientist, Yunasko
SC inner resistance (in particular, for Yunasko devices) is close to low limit and can further be reduced by a factor of 2 at the most.
Still the lowest resistance values are important since they imply high efficiency (hence, low heat generation and improved safety) and low RC-constant (hence, grid frequency regulation).
Higher operating temperature (about 100 °C) and higher rated voltage (about 3 V) are good challenges, and they are in Yunasko R&D portfolio today.
Since the SC energy density is limited by 5-8 W.h/kg, hybrid devices can become a good choice when the larger energy density is critical while a shorter cycle life can be accepted (up to 37 Wh/kg and 10’000 deep charge-discharge cycles in Yunasko technology today).
Along with the discussion of possible SC performance limits, the most recent Yunasko SC modules, their performance and possible applications will also be presented.
Optimized Ultracapacitors for Automotive Applications Juergen Auer, Managing Director and VP of Business Development, Europe, NESSCAP
The nature of all of us is to receive more comfort and safety features when sitting in a car today. Automotive is concentrating in more and more electrification. The consequence out of this is leading to have a secured and more powerful overall energy support. Ultracapacitor differ from batteries in the way they store energy. They sustain and perform in harsh environment and offering long life lasting but also an extreme high efficiency. The product can support the power needs for certain applications in automotive as standalone solutions and also in conjunction with today’s batteries. This session will work out the tradeoffs and constrains of why such products are still not standard in automotive as of today by focusing on development trends within ultracapacitor technology.
The demand of ESS (Battery or ECCAPs [Electrochemical Capacitors]) have been increasing now for new concept energy conservation vehicles such as STOP_START, Micro Hybrid, Mild Hybrid, EV, PHEV, and Full HEV. The new concept car will continue to grow. However the key issue will be always cost of ESS (Energy Storage System) . The basic concept of the study here in the presentation is to improve the cost performance by combining two technologies of the battery and ECCAP for ESS mounted in PHEV. Li-battery module mounted in the typical PHEV is about <20KWh. Battery performance will be primarily for cruising mode, a very middling application for a battery, while ECCAPs will be used >90% for acceleration and for capturing the regenerative power at the deceleration mode. Also, the development roadmap and new DLCAP with data will be introduced in the presentation.
Focusing points here in this presentation are:
The parallel connection system of DLCAP and Battery
DLCAP development roadmap for automotive requirements
Lithium-Ion Capacitors Combine Energy with Power Jan Ronsmans, Product Manager, JSR Micro
The Lithium Ion Capacitor is an innovative technology which made its entry into the energy storage markets more than five years ago. In the meantime, it has evolved into an ideal commercialized solution for closing the application gap between Lithium Ion Batteries and Supercapacitors. Combining energy and power with long-term life characteristics, lithium ion capacitors are already used today in hybrid buses, trams, hybrid excavators, medical equipment and power quality equipment amongst other applications. Due to its compact and light design, it is expected that the technology will also be implemented in passenger cars by the end of this decade. Further technology development and high volume production will allow mass deployment of lithium ion capacitors in the energy storage market in the following years.
This presentation will explain how ULTIMO Lithium Ion Capacitors combine Energy with Power by discussing:
The concept of Lithium Ion Capacitor technology and its positioning on the Ragone plot
How Lithium Ion Capacitors can bridge the gap between Lithium Ion Batteries and Supercapacitors, in particular by looking at similarities and differences in electrical performance
Commercial usage cases in different industrial applications, mobile as well as stationary
JSR Group High Volume Manufacturing plans
A vision on the future of Lithium Ion Capacitors
Automatic Start Stop on Municipal Buses using High-Power, High-Voltage Supercapacitors Roberto Cubells, Product Manager Super Condensadores, Mondragon Componentes
Contamination of today´s cities is a major concern, both from a health and economic point of view. Cities have hundreds to thousands of municipal buses circulating hundreds of kilometers each day, using large internal combustion engines, that are mainly running at relatively low revolutions and with hundreds of stops, for passengers, traffic lights, traffic jams, etc. The working condition of the bus is difficult to change, because of the intransigent nature of our cities, passenger demands, and traffic. City buses may have from 25% up to 40% of their time not moving, but with the engine running.
The second largest running expense for the transport companies is the cost of fuel.
Mondragon Componentes S.Coop, has developed an automatic Start Stop system for city buses, with the aim of reducing cost and air contamination, based on a large high-voltage, high-power and high-efficient Super Capacitor, with an electronic control system. The cost savings of this system is having a “pay-back period” of less than three years in Spanish cities.