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LLIBTA Symposium
Large Lithium Ion Battery Technology & Application
Monday, January 26 and Tuesday, January 27, 2015

AABC Europe 2015 - LLIBTA Symposium: Large Lithium Ion Battery Technology and Application - Session 4

Session 4:

Battery Safety Design, Testing, and Modeling

Safety of the early large Li-Ion battery installations will have the greatest impact on market acceptance for the technology in automotive and stationary applications. This session discussed safety-enhancing technology and the validation of battery safety under ordinary and abusive conditions.


Masato Origuchi


Session Chairman:

Masato Origuchi, EV Battery Development Group Leader, Renault


After he graduated from the University of Tokyo in 1989, Mr. Origuchi started his engineering carrier in the vehicle research laboratory of Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., where he was in charge of developing Nissan FEV presented in 1991. He continued to develop Altra EV and Tino HEV in Nissan taking a part of developing the world first Li-ion batteries for automotive applications until his resignation from Nissan at the end of 2000. Since 2002 he has been working for Renault in France always in charge of advanced battery development. He is now responsible for Renault’s EV battery development group.

  1. Development of a Global Technical Regulation on EV Safety
    Volker Rothe, Technical Lead Engineer Regulatory, Adam Opel AG
    The safety of electric vehicles is supported by government regulations and industry standards. Performance based requirements in these codes and standards are needed to allow flexibility in vehicle development and to avoid unnecessary design restrictions and associated costs. Useful regulations and standards in general will enable the market penetration of electric vehicles.
    Electric vehicles in general and propulsion batteries in particular face significant cost challenges. Technically sound and internationally harmonized regulations can help make these vehicles affordable to consumers, whereas unnecessary or non-harmonized regulations can hinder the successful transition to electric mobility. Current work to develop a Global Technical Regulation (GTR) for Electric Vehicle Safety (EVS) provides an opportunity for an internationally harmonized regulation that helps assure the safety of EVs in a cost-effective manner.

    This presentation will cover the following topics:

    • Background information on EVS GTR development
    • Structure of the EVS GTR working group
    • Overview on the current status of the draft EVS GTR
      • Electrical safety requirements “in-use”
      • Electrical safety requirements "post-crash"
      • Safety aspects for the Rechargeable Electric Energy Storage System REESS
    • Relationship with other relevant regulations and industry standards
  2. Abuse Tolerance of Renault's xEV Batteries
    Matthieu Mouvet, EV/HEV Electrical Energy Storage Systems Architect, Renault
    Abuse tolerance of xEV batteries have long time been subject to myth and misunderstanding. Following the first alarmist announcements, now that many EVs drive along in the streets including for Renault a mileage that will pass this year 1 billion km on all kind of roads, we can now assume that it has been demonstrated that EVs are safe product when designed and produced correctly. The best practice have to be shared to avoid safety issues that could endanger the industry.

    Specifically, in this presentation, we will focus on the abuse tolerance of Renault xEV batteries:

    • Explain the potential safety risk linked to the use of Li-Ion battery when integrated into vehicles
    • Explain how these potential risks are managed, with specific focus on Renault state of the art & safety policy items:
      • Protection against cell internal short circuit using blunt rod cell test
      • How to extinguish a battery in a vehicle on flame using Fireman access
      • HV service plug implementation
      • Which safety level is required for overcharge protection
      • Road debris protection
  3. Abuse Test Investigation within the EU-funded Project HELIOS with regard to Different Cathode Chemistries
    Horst Mettlach, GME Electrification, Adam Opel AG
    Over the recent years several cathode chemistries for Li-Ion batteries have been developed and brought to commercialization. For the use of Li-Ion batteries in electrified vehicles, it is interesting to know what are the advantages and disadvantages of the different chemistries.
    Therefore, the EU-funded project HELIOS—which started in November 2009—investigated four different cathode chemistries for Li-Ion batteries with respect to performance, life, abuse tolerance, cost, and recyclability.
    This presentation will focus on the abuse tolerance investigation within the HELIOS project.
    • Scope of the HELIOS project
    • Thermal runaway mechanisms of Li-Ion batteries
    • Abuse test procedure
    • Investigation on small-size cells
    • Investigation on full-scale cells
    • Aging of cells
    • Investigation on aged full-scale cells
    • Recommendation and summary
  4. Internal Short Circuit Simulation – Comparison of Methods for Testing Cell Stability in Case of Internal Short Circuit
    Harry Doering, Head of Electrochemical Accumulators Department, Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW)
    Internal short circuit of a cell is one of the most critical failure modes in lithium-ion batteries. The challenges in the area of testing are how to evaluate the risk of internal short circuit and how to test the stability against this failure mode. To create a realistic internal short circuit situation within the short period of testing is difficult and almost impossible in a highly reproducible way.

    Methods as nail penetration, blunt rod impact, and flat plate crush of cells with implanted particles are established methods for the simulation of an internal short circuit. However, nail penetration has a much stronger mechanical and electrical impact on the cell compared to the internal short circuit caused e.g. by dendrite growth and is therefore critically discussed. Implantation of particles on the other hand requires special preparation of the cells and the doors are wide open for manipulation not reflecting the conditions in the series product.

    Alternative methods for internal short circuit tests need to be developed, analyzed, and established. In this work pulse laser shooting will be presented as a novel approach to simulate cell internal shorts. A major advantage of this method is that a short-term laser impact instead of mimicking the short itself already simulates the result of the short: a localized, short-term energy release within the cell. Therewith, it can be evaluated if the energy release is kept local or if the released energy causes a chain reaction effect and a propagation of the failure mode leading to the thermal run away of the cell. The method of pulse laser shooting is not yet established in the field and requires further investigations but shall be presented for an open discussion and for getting a response for the chance of acceptance.

  5. Monitoring and Improving the Safety Behavior of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells by Advanced Sensor, Test, and Simulation Capabilities
    Wilhelm Maurer, Director Funding Projects & Coordination, Infineon Technologies AG
    High standards of quality and safety are essential features to distinguish the products of the German car industry among competitors. The project "SafeBatt", funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), is a joint undertaking of German car OEMs, Tier one and Tier two suppliers, and research institutes to develop active and passive measures for further improvement of the safety of lithium ion battery cells and modules beyond their current safety levels. This presentation will provide an overview of the current development  status on active measures, focusing on:
    • Sophisticated integration of sensors for temperature and pressure into lithium ion battery cells
    • Logging the data of cell-external and cell-internal sensors
    • Consolidation of various test procedures into so-called "focus tests"
    • Early detection of critical processes in the battery cell by cell-internal sensors
    • First steps of simulation to describe the electrical and chemical overall processes in a battery cell
    The presentation concludes with a summary and a discussion of different safety concepts.